Indigenous communities are being impacted by the development of natural resources in a variety of ways. Some communities have chosen to pursue economic opportunities by forming alliances with governments and industry partners and/or through the formation of new ventures. Other communities choose to ‘opt out’ of natural resource development projects for reasons usually related to environmental impact concerns (Anderson 1997; Anderson et al. 2006). For this special issue we seek theoretical and empirical work that advances our understanding of the multiple ways in which strategic alliances and partnerships between natural resource corporations, governments and Indigenous communities can be negotiated, formed, sustained and leveraged for the purposes of creating win/win value propositions that may have either a direct or indirect impact on the creation of wholly owned or joint new ventures.