5 km front crawl in pool and open water swimming: breath-by-breath energy expenditure and kinematic analysis

Rodrigo Zacca, Vânia Neves, Tiago da Silva Oliveira, Susana Soares, Luís Manuel Pinto Lopes Rama, Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, David B Pyne, Ricardo J Fernandes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

PURPOSE: Breath-by-breath energy expenditure during open water swimming has not yet been explored in an ecological environment. This study aimed to investigate and compare energetics and kinematics of 5 km swimming, in both swimming pool and open water conditions.

METHODS: Through four independent studies, oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]2) kinetics, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration ([La-]) and glucose level (BGL), metabolic power ([Formula: see text]), energy cost (C) and kinematics were assessed during 5 km front crawl trials in a swimming pool and open water conditions. A total of 38 competitive open water swimmers aged 16-27 years volunteered for this four part investigation: Study A (pool, ten females, 11 males), Study B (pool, four females, six males), Study C (pool case study, one female) and Study D (open water, three females, four males).

RESULTS: In the swimming pool, swimmers started with an above average swimming speed (v), losing efficiency along the 5 km, despite apparent homeostasis for [La-], BGL, [Formula: see text]2, [Formula: see text] and C. In open water, swimmers started the 5 km with a below average v, increasing the stroke rate (SR) in the last 1000 m. In open water, [Formula: see text]2 kinetics parameters, HR, [La-], BGL, respiratory exchange ratio and C were affected by the v and SR fluctuations along the 5 km.

CONCLUSIONS: Small fluctuations were observed for energetic variables in both conditions, but changes in C were lower in swimming pool than in open water. Coaches should adjust the training plan accordingly to the specificity of open water swimming.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 Jun 2020

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of '5 km front crawl in pool and open water swimming: breath-by-breath energy expenditure and kinematic analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Zacca, R., Neves, V., da Silva Oliveira, T., Soares, S., Rama, L. M. P. L., de Souza Castro, F. A., Vilas-Boas, J. P., Pyne, D. B., & Fernandes, R. J. (2020). 5 km front crawl in pool and open water swimming: breath-by-breath energy expenditure and kinematic analysis. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04420-7