Introduction:To investigate the validity of using 670nm red light as a preventative treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity in two animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR).Materials and Methods:During and post exposure to hyperoxia, C57BL/6J mice or Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 670nm light for 3 minutes a day (9J/cm2). Whole mounted retinas were investigated for evidence of vascular abnormalities, while sections of neural retina were used to quantify levels of cell death using the TUNEL technique. Organs were removed, weighed and independent histopathology examination performed.Results:670nm light reduced neovascularisation, vaso-obliteration and abnormal peripheral branching patterns of retinal vessels in OIR. The neural retina was also protected against OIR by 670nm light exposure. OIR-exposed animals had severe lung pathology, including haemorrhage and oedema, that was significantly reduced in 670nm+OIR light-exposed animals. There were no significance differences in the organ weights of animals in the 670nm light-exposed animals, and no adverse effects of exposure to 670nm light were detected. Discussion: Low levels of exposure to 670nm light protects against OIR and lung damage associated with exposure to high levels of oxygen, and may prove to be a non-invasive and inexpensive preventative treatment for ROP and chronic lung disease associated with prematurity.