A global synthesis of plant extinction rates in urban areas

Amy Hahs, Mark McDonnell, Michael McCarthy, Peter Vesk, Richard Corlett, Briony Norton, Steven Clemants, Richard Duncan, Ken Thompson, Mark Schwartz, Nicholas Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

245 Citations (Scopus)


Plant extinctions from urban areas are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide. To minimize this threat, it is critical to understand what factors are influencing plant extinction rates. We compiled plant extinction rate data for 22 cities around the world. Two-thirds of the variation in plant extinction rates was explained by a combination of the city's historical development and the current proportion of native vegetation, with the former explaining the greatest variability. As a single variable, the amount of native vegetation remaining also influenced extinction rates, particularly in cities > 200 years old. Our study demonstrates that the legacies of landscape transformations by agrarian and urban development last for hundreds of years, and modern cities potentially carry a large extinction debt. This finding highlights the importance of preserving native vegetation in urban areas and the need for mitigation to minimize potential plant extinctions in the future.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1165-1173
Number of pages9
JournalEcology Letters
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


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