A multifactorial evaluation of illness risk factors in athletes preparing for the Summer Olympic Games

Michael K Drew, Nicole vlahovich, David Hughes, Renee Appaneal, Kirsten Peterson, Louise Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Mary Toomey, David Watts, Gregory Lovell, Stephan Praet, Shona Halson, Candice Colbey, Silvia Manzanero, Marijke Welvaert, Nic West, David B Pyne, Gordon Waddington

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    19 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: Illness can disrupt training and competition performance of athletes. Few studies have quantified the relative contribution of the known medical, behavioural and lifestyle risk factors.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    METHODS: Olympic athletes from 11 sports (n=221) were invited to complete questionnaires administered nine months before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. These included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire (DASS-21), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS), Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q-52 item), Low Energy in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), a modified Personal and Household Hygiene questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and custom-made questionnaires on probiotic usage and travel. An illness (case) was defined as an event which limited training or competition for greater hours in the prior month. Odds ratios and attributable fractions in the population (AFP) were utilised for categorical variables with independent t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum for continuous variables.

    RESULTS: Eighty-one athletes responded (male, n=26; female, n=55). There were 16 illness cases and 65 controls. Female athletes were at higher odds of illness (OR=9.4, 95%CI 1.3-410, p=0.01, AFP=0.84). Low energy availability (LEAF-Q score ≥8: OR=7.4, 95%CI 0.78-352, p=0.04, AFP=0.76), depression symptoms (DASS-21: depression score >4, OR=8.4, 95%CI 1.1-59, p<0.01; AFP=0.39) and higher perceived stress (PSS: 10-item, p=0.04) were significantly associated with illness.

    CONCLUSIONS: Female sex, low energy availability, and mental health are associated with sports incapacity (time loss) due to illness. Low energy availability had high attributable fractions in the population and stands out as a primary association with illness.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)745-750
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport
    Volume20
    Issue number8
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 2017

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    Athletes
    Population
    Depression
    Sports
    Probiotics
    Nonparametric Statistics
    Hygiene
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Life Style
    Mental Health
    Sleep
    Anxiety
    Odds Ratio

    Cite this

    Drew, Michael K ; vlahovich, Nicole ; Hughes, David ; Appaneal, Renee ; Peterson, Kirsten ; Burke, Louise ; Lundy, Bronwen ; Toomey, Mary ; Watts, David ; Lovell, Gregory ; Praet, Stephan ; Halson, Shona ; Colbey, Candice ; Manzanero, Silvia ; Welvaert, Marijke ; West, Nic ; Pyne, David B ; Waddington, Gordon. / A multifactorial evaluation of illness risk factors in athletes preparing for the Summer Olympic Games. In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2017 ; Vol. 20, No. 8. pp. 745-750.
    @article{3387413a4f5148f6b12e0a27561605be,
    title = "A multifactorial evaluation of illness risk factors in athletes preparing for the Summer Olympic Games",
    abstract = "OBJECTIVES: Illness can disrupt training and competition performance of athletes. Few studies have quantified the relative contribution of the known medical, behavioural and lifestyle risk factors.DESIGN: Cross-sectional.METHODS: Olympic athletes from 11 sports (n=221) were invited to complete questionnaires administered nine months before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. These included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire (DASS-21), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS), Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q-52 item), Low Energy in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), a modified Personal and Household Hygiene questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and custom-made questionnaires on probiotic usage and travel. An illness (case) was defined as an event which limited training or competition for greater hours in the prior month. Odds ratios and attributable fractions in the population (AFP) were utilised for categorical variables with independent t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum for continuous variables.RESULTS: Eighty-one athletes responded (male, n=26; female, n=55). There were 16 illness cases and 65 controls. Female athletes were at higher odds of illness (OR=9.4, 95{\%}CI 1.3-410, p=0.01, AFP=0.84). Low energy availability (LEAF-Q score ≥8: OR=7.4, 95{\%}CI 0.78-352, p=0.04, AFP=0.76), depression symptoms (DASS-21: depression score >4, OR=8.4, 95{\%}CI 1.1-59, p<0.01; AFP=0.39) and higher perceived stress (PSS: 10-item, p=0.04) were significantly associated with illness.CONCLUSIONS: Female sex, low energy availability, and mental health are associated with sports incapacity (time loss) due to illness. Low energy availability had high attributable fractions in the population and stands out as a primary association with illness.",
    keywords = "Athlete, Case-control, Illness, Prevention, Risk factor",
    author = "Drew, {Michael K} and Nicole vlahovich and David Hughes and Renee Appaneal and Kirsten Peterson and Louise Burke and Bronwen Lundy and Mary Toomey and David Watts and Gregory Lovell and Stephan Praet and Shona Halson and Candice Colbey and Silvia Manzanero and Marijke Welvaert and Nic West and Pyne, {David B} and Gordon Waddington",
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    Drew, MK, vlahovich, N, Hughes, D, Appaneal, R, Peterson, K, Burke, L, Lundy, B, Toomey, M, Watts, D, Lovell, G, Praet, S, Halson, S, Colbey, C, Manzanero, S, Welvaert, M, West, N, Pyne, DB & Waddington, G 2017, 'A multifactorial evaluation of illness risk factors in athletes preparing for the Summer Olympic Games', Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 745-750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.02.010

    A multifactorial evaluation of illness risk factors in athletes preparing for the Summer Olympic Games. / Drew, Michael K; vlahovich, Nicole; Hughes, David; Appaneal, Renee; Peterson, Kirsten; Burke, Louise; Lundy, Bronwen; Toomey, Mary; Watts, David; Lovell, Gregory; Praet, Stephan; Halson, Shona; Colbey, Candice; Manzanero, Silvia; Welvaert, Marijke; West, Nic; Pyne, David B; Waddington, Gordon.

    In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Vol. 20, No. 8, 08.2017, p. 745-750.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - A multifactorial evaluation of illness risk factors in athletes preparing for the Summer Olympic Games

    AU - Drew, Michael K

    AU - vlahovich, Nicole

    AU - Hughes, David

    AU - Appaneal, Renee

    AU - Peterson, Kirsten

    AU - Burke, Louise

    AU - Lundy, Bronwen

    AU - Toomey, Mary

    AU - Watts, David

    AU - Lovell, Gregory

    AU - Praet, Stephan

    AU - Halson, Shona

    AU - Colbey, Candice

    AU - Manzanero, Silvia

    AU - Welvaert, Marijke

    AU - West, Nic

    AU - Pyne, David B

    AU - Waddington, Gordon

    N1 - Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    PY - 2017/8

    Y1 - 2017/8

    N2 - OBJECTIVES: Illness can disrupt training and competition performance of athletes. Few studies have quantified the relative contribution of the known medical, behavioural and lifestyle risk factors.DESIGN: Cross-sectional.METHODS: Olympic athletes from 11 sports (n=221) were invited to complete questionnaires administered nine months before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. These included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire (DASS-21), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS), Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q-52 item), Low Energy in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), a modified Personal and Household Hygiene questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and custom-made questionnaires on probiotic usage and travel. An illness (case) was defined as an event which limited training or competition for greater hours in the prior month. Odds ratios and attributable fractions in the population (AFP) were utilised for categorical variables with independent t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum for continuous variables.RESULTS: Eighty-one athletes responded (male, n=26; female, n=55). There were 16 illness cases and 65 controls. Female athletes were at higher odds of illness (OR=9.4, 95%CI 1.3-410, p=0.01, AFP=0.84). Low energy availability (LEAF-Q score ≥8: OR=7.4, 95%CI 0.78-352, p=0.04, AFP=0.76), depression symptoms (DASS-21: depression score >4, OR=8.4, 95%CI 1.1-59, p<0.01; AFP=0.39) and higher perceived stress (PSS: 10-item, p=0.04) were significantly associated with illness.CONCLUSIONS: Female sex, low energy availability, and mental health are associated with sports incapacity (time loss) due to illness. Low energy availability had high attributable fractions in the population and stands out as a primary association with illness.

    AB - OBJECTIVES: Illness can disrupt training and competition performance of athletes. Few studies have quantified the relative contribution of the known medical, behavioural and lifestyle risk factors.DESIGN: Cross-sectional.METHODS: Olympic athletes from 11 sports (n=221) were invited to complete questionnaires administered nine months before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. These included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire (DASS-21), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS), Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q-52 item), Low Energy in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), a modified Personal and Household Hygiene questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and custom-made questionnaires on probiotic usage and travel. An illness (case) was defined as an event which limited training or competition for greater hours in the prior month. Odds ratios and attributable fractions in the population (AFP) were utilised for categorical variables with independent t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum for continuous variables.RESULTS: Eighty-one athletes responded (male, n=26; female, n=55). There were 16 illness cases and 65 controls. Female athletes were at higher odds of illness (OR=9.4, 95%CI 1.3-410, p=0.01, AFP=0.84). Low energy availability (LEAF-Q score ≥8: OR=7.4, 95%CI 0.78-352, p=0.04, AFP=0.76), depression symptoms (DASS-21: depression score >4, OR=8.4, 95%CI 1.1-59, p<0.01; AFP=0.39) and higher perceived stress (PSS: 10-item, p=0.04) were significantly associated with illness.CONCLUSIONS: Female sex, low energy availability, and mental health are associated with sports incapacity (time loss) due to illness. Low energy availability had high attributable fractions in the population and stands out as a primary association with illness.

    KW - Athlete

    KW - Case-control

    KW - Illness

    KW - Prevention

    KW - Risk factor

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    DO - 10.1016/j.jsams.2017.02.010

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    EP - 750

    JO - Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

    JF - Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

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