A pilot study on biomarkers for tendinopathy

Lower levels of serum TNF-α and other cytokines in females but not males with Achilles tendinopathy

Jamie GAIDA, Hakan Alfredson, Sture Forsgren, Jill Cook

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    7 Citations (Scopus)
    2 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    Background
    Achilles tendinopathy is a painful musculoskeletal condition that is common among athletes, and which limits training capacity and competitive performance. The lack of biomarkers for tendinopathy limits research into risk factors and also the evaluation of new treatments. Cytokines and growth factors involved in regulating the response of tendon cells to mechanical load have potential as biomarkers for tendinopathy.

    Methods
    This case–control study compared serum concentration of cytokines and growth factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, bFGF, PDFG-BB, IFN-γ, VEGF) between individuals with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and controls. These were measured in fasting serum from 22 individuals with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and 10 healthy controls. Results were analysed in relation to gender and physical activity pattern.

    Results
    TNF-α concentration was lower in the entire tendinopathy group compared with the entire control group; none of the other cytokines were significantly different. TNF-α levels were nevertheless highly correlated with the other cytokines measured, in most of the subgroups. Analysed by gender, TNF-α and PDGF-BB concentrations were lower in the female tendinopathy group but not the male tendinopathy group. A trend was seen for lower IL-1β in the female tendinopathy group. Physical activity was correlated with TNF-α, PDGF-BB and IL-1β to varying extents for control subgroups, but not for the female tendinopathy group. No correlations were seen with BMI or duration of symptoms.

    Conclusions
    This pilot study indicates a lower level of TNF-α and PDGF-BB, and to some extent IL-1β among females, but not males, in the chronic phase of Achilles tendinopathy. It is suggested that future studies on tendinopathy biomarkers analyse male and female data separately. The lack of correlation between cytokine level and physical activity in the female tendinopathy group warrants further study
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number5
    Pages (from-to)1-10
    Number of pages10
    JournalBMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
    Volume8
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016

    Fingerprint

    Tendinopathy
    Biomarkers
    Cytokines
    Serum
    Interleukin-1
    Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
    Exercise
    Interpersonal Relations
    Athletes
    Tendons
    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
    Fasting

    Cite this

    @article{6221b9a0d4664419a51739a880699d0e,
    title = "A pilot study on biomarkers for tendinopathy: Lower levels of serum TNF-α and other cytokines in females but not males with Achilles tendinopathy",
    abstract = "BackgroundAchilles tendinopathy is a painful musculoskeletal condition that is common among athletes, and which limits training capacity and competitive performance. The lack of biomarkers for tendinopathy limits research into risk factors and also the evaluation of new treatments. Cytokines and growth factors involved in regulating the response of tendon cells to mechanical load have potential as biomarkers for tendinopathy.MethodsThis case–control study compared serum concentration of cytokines and growth factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, bFGF, PDFG-BB, IFN-γ, VEGF) between individuals with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and controls. These were measured in fasting serum from 22 individuals with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and 10 healthy controls. Results were analysed in relation to gender and physical activity pattern.ResultsTNF-α concentration was lower in the entire tendinopathy group compared with the entire control group; none of the other cytokines were significantly different. TNF-α levels were nevertheless highly correlated with the other cytokines measured, in most of the subgroups. Analysed by gender, TNF-α and PDGF-BB concentrations were lower in the female tendinopathy group but not the male tendinopathy group. A trend was seen for lower IL-1β in the female tendinopathy group. Physical activity was correlated with TNF-α, PDGF-BB and IL-1β to varying extents for control subgroups, but not for the female tendinopathy group. No correlations were seen with BMI or duration of symptoms.ConclusionsThis pilot study indicates a lower level of TNF-α and PDGF-BB, and to some extent IL-1β among females, but not males, in the chronic phase of Achilles tendinopathy. It is suggested that future studies on tendinopathy biomarkers analyse male and female data separately. The lack of correlation between cytokine level and physical activity in the female tendinopathy group warrants further study",
    keywords = "Biomarkers, Cytokines, Musculoskeletal pain, Tumor necrosis factor alpha",
    author = "Jamie GAIDA and Hakan Alfredson and Sture Forsgren and Jill Cook",
    year = "2016",
    doi = "10.1186/s13102-016-0026-0",
    language = "English",
    volume = "8",
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    A pilot study on biomarkers for tendinopathy : Lower levels of serum TNF-α and other cytokines in females but not males with Achilles tendinopathy. / GAIDA, Jamie; Alfredson, Hakan; Forsgren, Sture; Cook, Jill.

    In: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 8, No. 1, 5, 2016, p. 1-10.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - A pilot study on biomarkers for tendinopathy

    T2 - Lower levels of serum TNF-α and other cytokines in females but not males with Achilles tendinopathy

    AU - GAIDA, Jamie

    AU - Alfredson, Hakan

    AU - Forsgren, Sture

    AU - Cook, Jill

    PY - 2016

    Y1 - 2016

    N2 - BackgroundAchilles tendinopathy is a painful musculoskeletal condition that is common among athletes, and which limits training capacity and competitive performance. The lack of biomarkers for tendinopathy limits research into risk factors and also the evaluation of new treatments. Cytokines and growth factors involved in regulating the response of tendon cells to mechanical load have potential as biomarkers for tendinopathy.MethodsThis case–control study compared serum concentration of cytokines and growth factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, bFGF, PDFG-BB, IFN-γ, VEGF) between individuals with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and controls. These were measured in fasting serum from 22 individuals with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and 10 healthy controls. Results were analysed in relation to gender and physical activity pattern.ResultsTNF-α concentration was lower in the entire tendinopathy group compared with the entire control group; none of the other cytokines were significantly different. TNF-α levels were nevertheless highly correlated with the other cytokines measured, in most of the subgroups. Analysed by gender, TNF-α and PDGF-BB concentrations were lower in the female tendinopathy group but not the male tendinopathy group. A trend was seen for lower IL-1β in the female tendinopathy group. Physical activity was correlated with TNF-α, PDGF-BB and IL-1β to varying extents for control subgroups, but not for the female tendinopathy group. No correlations were seen with BMI or duration of symptoms.ConclusionsThis pilot study indicates a lower level of TNF-α and PDGF-BB, and to some extent IL-1β among females, but not males, in the chronic phase of Achilles tendinopathy. It is suggested that future studies on tendinopathy biomarkers analyse male and female data separately. The lack of correlation between cytokine level and physical activity in the female tendinopathy group warrants further study

    AB - BackgroundAchilles tendinopathy is a painful musculoskeletal condition that is common among athletes, and which limits training capacity and competitive performance. The lack of biomarkers for tendinopathy limits research into risk factors and also the evaluation of new treatments. Cytokines and growth factors involved in regulating the response of tendon cells to mechanical load have potential as biomarkers for tendinopathy.MethodsThis case–control study compared serum concentration of cytokines and growth factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, bFGF, PDFG-BB, IFN-γ, VEGF) between individuals with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and controls. These were measured in fasting serum from 22 individuals with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and 10 healthy controls. Results were analysed in relation to gender and physical activity pattern.ResultsTNF-α concentration was lower in the entire tendinopathy group compared with the entire control group; none of the other cytokines were significantly different. TNF-α levels were nevertheless highly correlated with the other cytokines measured, in most of the subgroups. Analysed by gender, TNF-α and PDGF-BB concentrations were lower in the female tendinopathy group but not the male tendinopathy group. A trend was seen for lower IL-1β in the female tendinopathy group. Physical activity was correlated with TNF-α, PDGF-BB and IL-1β to varying extents for control subgroups, but not for the female tendinopathy group. No correlations were seen with BMI or duration of symptoms.ConclusionsThis pilot study indicates a lower level of TNF-α and PDGF-BB, and to some extent IL-1β among females, but not males, in the chronic phase of Achilles tendinopathy. It is suggested that future studies on tendinopathy biomarkers analyse male and female data separately. The lack of correlation between cytokine level and physical activity in the female tendinopathy group warrants further study

    KW - Biomarkers

    KW - Cytokines

    KW - Musculoskeletal pain

    KW - Tumor necrosis factor alpha

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    UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/pilot-study-biomarkers-tendinopathy-lower-levels-serum-tnf%CE%B1-other-cytokines-females-not-males-achill

    U2 - 10.1186/s13102-016-0026-0

    DO - 10.1186/s13102-016-0026-0

    M3 - Article

    VL - 8

    SP - 1

    EP - 10

    JO - Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy and Technology

    JF - Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy and Technology

    SN - 1758-2555

    IS - 1

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