There has been a dramatic growth in research on biological invasions over the past 20 years, but a mature understanding of the field has been hampered because invasion biologists concerned with different taxa and different environments have largely adopted different model frameworks for the invasion process, resulting in a confusing range of concepts, terms and definitions. In this review, we propose a unified framework for biological invasions that reconciles and integrates the key features of the most commonly used invasion frameworks into a single conceptual model that can be applied to all human-mediated invasions. The unified framework combines previous stage-based and barrier models, and provides a terminology and categorisation for populations at different points in the invasion process.
Blackburn, T., Pysek, P., Bacher, S., Carlton, J., DUNCAN, R., Jarosik, V., Wilson, J. R. U., & Richardson, D. (2011). A proposed unified framework for biological invasions. Trends in Ecology Evolution, 26(7), 333-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2011.03.023