A proposed unified framework for biological invasions

Tim Blackburn, Petr Pysek, Sven Bacher, James Carlton, Richard DUNCAN, Vojtech Jarosik, John R.U. Wilson, David Richardson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1712 Citations (Scopus)


There has been a dramatic growth in research on biological invasions over the past 20 years, but a mature understanding of the field has been hampered because invasion biologists concerned with different taxa and different environments have largely adopted different model frameworks for the invasion process, resulting in a confusing range of concepts, terms and definitions. In this review, we propose a unified framework for biological invasions that reconciles and integrates the key features of the most commonly used invasion frameworks into a single conceptual model that can be applied to all human-mediated invasions. The unified framework combines previous stage-based and barrier models, and provides a terminology and categorisation for populations at different points in the invasion process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-339
Number of pages7
JournalTrends in Ecology Evolution
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


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