Methods: A multiplex PCR assay was used to screen for the presence of mcr-1 to mcr-5 in large collections of >1,000 GNB of human origin. The isolates were collected from the GCC countries, Egypt and Jordan, for surveillance purposes of MDR GNB. Pooling of the isolates were prepared to expedite the screening process. Positive controls of mcr-2, mcr-4 and mcr-5 genes were synthesized using Equine Herpes Virus-1 as a template, to amplify the designated gene products.
Results: The mcr-1 gene was detected in one pool belongs to E.coli isolates from Qatar, and in one pool consist of E.coli and K.pnemoniae from Jordon. The results also detected the presence of mcr-5 gene in a pool indicated E.coli isolates from Saudi Arabia.
Conclusion: This is the first detection of mcr-1 in Jordon, and mcr-5 in the Saudi Arabia in samples derived from human isolates. Further studies will be conducted to confirm the source of these isolates. Also, the full characterization of the bacteria carrying the mcr-1 and mcr-5 will be confirmed by next generation WGS using illumine MiniSeq platform to further identify other MDR genes, sequences types and plasmids harboring mcr genes. This finding should stimulate active surveillance programs to monitor the emergence and spread of MDR in the MENA region.