Abundant stocks and mobilization of elements in boreal acid sulfate soils

Markku Yli-Halla, Seija Virtanen, Minna Mäkelä, Asko Simojoki, Mirva Hirvi, Saila Innanen, Jaakko J. Mäkelä, Leigh Sullivan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Large amounts of sulfate and divalent iron (Fe) are released into the pore water of acid sulfate (AS) soils upon oxidation of sulfidic materials. The simultaneously produced acidity dissolves metals from the soil matrix. Reduced horizons of AS soils commonly have a large mineral nitrogen (N) stock in the form of NH4 +-N, which is a potential source of N leaching and gaseous emissions. This study was carried out at three AS soil sites in Finland. Cation composition of pore water was monitored in a monolithic lysimeter experiment. Timothy samples grown in an AS soil were analysed for mineral elements and the soil was investigated for zinc (Zn) distribution in different chemical species at four depths down to 85 cm. The composition of pipestems formed in previous root channels was investigated by SEM, X-ray EDX and XRD. Emissions of CO2 and N2O were measured in an AS field which had a peaty topsoil. Monitoring by closed chambers was carried out at three sites differing in the depth of peat layer (15, 30 and 60 cm). In the sulfuric horizon, large amounts of calcium and magnesium were mobilized. Reflooding stopped the mobilization of those elements but resulted in abundant dissolution of Fe, which became the dominant cation in the pore water. Timothy growing in an AS soil showed only small deviations from the average composition measured in Finland with the exception of Zn that was at the deficiency level. As Zn in the root zone had been dissolved and subsequently leached, it was recovered in easily soluble forms in the subsoil. Pipestem composition indicated accumulation of Fe and formation of a new solid phase probably mostly in the form of schwertmannite even though jarosite was also detected. The annual CO2 emissions from the peaty AS soil were about 6000 kg C ha− 1 but the N2O emissions were relatively small, with a magnitude more typical of mineral rather than organic soils. Thus, large N stock of an AS soil do not necessarily contribute to abundant gaseous N emissions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-340
Number of pages8
JournalGeoderma
Volume308
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

acid sulfate soils
acid sulfate soil
mobilization
porewater
zinc
minerals
Finland
cations
sulfates
mineral
cation
root channels
schwertmannite
sulfate
chemical speciation
jarosite
water
lysimeters
lysimeter
subsoil

Cite this

Yli-Halla, M., Virtanen, S., Mäkelä, M., Simojoki, A., Hirvi, M., Innanen, S., ... Sullivan, L. (2017). Abundant stocks and mobilization of elements in boreal acid sulfate soils. Geoderma, 308, 333-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.07.043
Yli-Halla, Markku ; Virtanen, Seija ; Mäkelä, Minna ; Simojoki, Asko ; Hirvi, Mirva ; Innanen, Saila ; Mäkelä, Jaakko J. ; Sullivan, Leigh. / Abundant stocks and mobilization of elements in boreal acid sulfate soils. In: Geoderma. 2017 ; Vol. 308. pp. 333-340.
@article{6d2a36b33e6040279a7a3f2364ee4b9e,
title = "Abundant stocks and mobilization of elements in boreal acid sulfate soils",
abstract = "Large amounts of sulfate and divalent iron (Fe) are released into the pore water of acid sulfate (AS) soils upon oxidation of sulfidic materials. The simultaneously produced acidity dissolves metals from the soil matrix. Reduced horizons of AS soils commonly have a large mineral nitrogen (N) stock in the form of NH4 +-N, which is a potential source of N leaching and gaseous emissions. This study was carried out at three AS soil sites in Finland. Cation composition of pore water was monitored in a monolithic lysimeter experiment. Timothy samples grown in an AS soil were analysed for mineral elements and the soil was investigated for zinc (Zn) distribution in different chemical species at four depths down to 85 cm. The composition of pipestems formed in previous root channels was investigated by SEM, X-ray EDX and XRD. Emissions of CO2 and N2O were measured in an AS field which had a peaty topsoil. Monitoring by closed chambers was carried out at three sites differing in the depth of peat layer (15, 30 and 60 cm). In the sulfuric horizon, large amounts of calcium and magnesium were mobilized. Reflooding stopped the mobilization of those elements but resulted in abundant dissolution of Fe, which became the dominant cation in the pore water. Timothy growing in an AS soil showed only small deviations from the average composition measured in Finland with the exception of Zn that was at the deficiency level. As Zn in the root zone had been dissolved and subsequently leached, it was recovered in easily soluble forms in the subsoil. Pipestem composition indicated accumulation of Fe and formation of a new solid phase probably mostly in the form of schwertmannite even though jarosite was also detected. The annual CO2 emissions from the peaty AS soil were about 6000 kg C ha− 1 but the N2O emissions were relatively small, with a magnitude more typical of mineral rather than organic soils. Thus, large N stock of an AS soil do not necessarily contribute to abundant gaseous N emissions.",
keywords = "Acid sulfate soils, Acidification, Greenhouse gas emissions, Oxidation, Plant composition, Water-logging",
author = "Markku Yli-Halla and Seija Virtanen and Minna M{\"a}kel{\"a} and Asko Simojoki and Mirva Hirvi and Saila Innanen and M{\"a}kel{\"a}, {Jaakko J.} and Leigh Sullivan",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.07.043",
language = "English",
volume = "308",
pages = "333--340",
journal = "Geoderma - A Global Journal of Soil Science",
issn = "0016-7061",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Yli-Halla, M, Virtanen, S, Mäkelä, M, Simojoki, A, Hirvi, M, Innanen, S, Mäkelä, JJ & Sullivan, L 2017, 'Abundant stocks and mobilization of elements in boreal acid sulfate soils', Geoderma, vol. 308, pp. 333-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.07.043

Abundant stocks and mobilization of elements in boreal acid sulfate soils. / Yli-Halla, Markku; Virtanen, Seija; Mäkelä, Minna; Simojoki, Asko; Hirvi, Mirva; Innanen, Saila; Mäkelä, Jaakko J.; Sullivan, Leigh.

In: Geoderma, Vol. 308, 2017, p. 333-340.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Abundant stocks and mobilization of elements in boreal acid sulfate soils

AU - Yli-Halla, Markku

AU - Virtanen, Seija

AU - Mäkelä, Minna

AU - Simojoki, Asko

AU - Hirvi, Mirva

AU - Innanen, Saila

AU - Mäkelä, Jaakko J.

AU - Sullivan, Leigh

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Large amounts of sulfate and divalent iron (Fe) are released into the pore water of acid sulfate (AS) soils upon oxidation of sulfidic materials. The simultaneously produced acidity dissolves metals from the soil matrix. Reduced horizons of AS soils commonly have a large mineral nitrogen (N) stock in the form of NH4 +-N, which is a potential source of N leaching and gaseous emissions. This study was carried out at three AS soil sites in Finland. Cation composition of pore water was monitored in a monolithic lysimeter experiment. Timothy samples grown in an AS soil were analysed for mineral elements and the soil was investigated for zinc (Zn) distribution in different chemical species at four depths down to 85 cm. The composition of pipestems formed in previous root channels was investigated by SEM, X-ray EDX and XRD. Emissions of CO2 and N2O were measured in an AS field which had a peaty topsoil. Monitoring by closed chambers was carried out at three sites differing in the depth of peat layer (15, 30 and 60 cm). In the sulfuric horizon, large amounts of calcium and magnesium were mobilized. Reflooding stopped the mobilization of those elements but resulted in abundant dissolution of Fe, which became the dominant cation in the pore water. Timothy growing in an AS soil showed only small deviations from the average composition measured in Finland with the exception of Zn that was at the deficiency level. As Zn in the root zone had been dissolved and subsequently leached, it was recovered in easily soluble forms in the subsoil. Pipestem composition indicated accumulation of Fe and formation of a new solid phase probably mostly in the form of schwertmannite even though jarosite was also detected. The annual CO2 emissions from the peaty AS soil were about 6000 kg C ha− 1 but the N2O emissions were relatively small, with a magnitude more typical of mineral rather than organic soils. Thus, large N stock of an AS soil do not necessarily contribute to abundant gaseous N emissions.

AB - Large amounts of sulfate and divalent iron (Fe) are released into the pore water of acid sulfate (AS) soils upon oxidation of sulfidic materials. The simultaneously produced acidity dissolves metals from the soil matrix. Reduced horizons of AS soils commonly have a large mineral nitrogen (N) stock in the form of NH4 +-N, which is a potential source of N leaching and gaseous emissions. This study was carried out at three AS soil sites in Finland. Cation composition of pore water was monitored in a monolithic lysimeter experiment. Timothy samples grown in an AS soil were analysed for mineral elements and the soil was investigated for zinc (Zn) distribution in different chemical species at four depths down to 85 cm. The composition of pipestems formed in previous root channels was investigated by SEM, X-ray EDX and XRD. Emissions of CO2 and N2O were measured in an AS field which had a peaty topsoil. Monitoring by closed chambers was carried out at three sites differing in the depth of peat layer (15, 30 and 60 cm). In the sulfuric horizon, large amounts of calcium and magnesium were mobilized. Reflooding stopped the mobilization of those elements but resulted in abundant dissolution of Fe, which became the dominant cation in the pore water. Timothy growing in an AS soil showed only small deviations from the average composition measured in Finland with the exception of Zn that was at the deficiency level. As Zn in the root zone had been dissolved and subsequently leached, it was recovered in easily soluble forms in the subsoil. Pipestem composition indicated accumulation of Fe and formation of a new solid phase probably mostly in the form of schwertmannite even though jarosite was also detected. The annual CO2 emissions from the peaty AS soil were about 6000 kg C ha− 1 but the N2O emissions were relatively small, with a magnitude more typical of mineral rather than organic soils. Thus, large N stock of an AS soil do not necessarily contribute to abundant gaseous N emissions.

KW - Acid sulfate soils

KW - Acidification

KW - Greenhouse gas emissions

KW - Oxidation

KW - Plant composition

KW - Water-logging

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85028338165&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/abundant-stocks-mobilization-elements-boreal-acid-sulfate-soils

U2 - 10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.07.043

DO - 10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.07.043

M3 - Article

VL - 308

SP - 333

EP - 340

JO - Geoderma - A Global Journal of Soil Science

JF - Geoderma - A Global Journal of Soil Science

SN - 0016-7061

ER -

Yli-Halla M, Virtanen S, Mäkelä M, Simojoki A, Hirvi M, Innanen S et al. Abundant stocks and mobilization of elements in boreal acid sulfate soils. Geoderma. 2017;308:333-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.07.043