Acute Carbohydrate Consumption On The Iron-regulatory Response To Exercise In Elite Keto-adapted Endurance Athletes

Alannah K. A. Mckay, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Marijke Welvaert, Nicolin Tee, Jill J. Leckey, Avish P. Sharma, Megan L. R. Ross, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Rachel P. L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers, Lousie M. Burke

Research output: Contribution to journalMeeting Abstract

Abstract

It has been demonstrated adherence to a low carbohydrate (CHO) high fat (LCHF) diet can alter markers of iron metabolism in endurance athletes Purpose: To investigate the impact of CHO re-introduction in athletes previously adapted to a LCHF diet on subsequent inflammatory and hepcidin responses to exercise. Methods: In the three weeks prior to the exercise trials, twenty-three elite race walkers adhered to either a CHO-rich (n=14) or LCHF diet (n=9). A 19-25 km race walking protocol was performed while the race walkers were still adhering to their allocated dietary intervention (Adapt). A second exercise test was performed three days later, where the LCHF consumed CHO 2 h prior to, and during the exercise protocol (in line with sports nutrition guidelines) for the first time in 3.5 weeks (CHO Restoration). Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 3 h post-exercise and analysed for serum ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin-25. Results: Serum ferritin concentration was similar between trials (p=0.48) and dietary groups (p=0.93). The post-exercise IL-6 increase was greater in LCHF (p<0.001) during both Adapt (LCHF: 13.1-fold increase; CHO: 8.0-fold increase) and CHO Restoration (LCHF: 18.5-fold increase, CHO: 6.3-fold increase); outcomes were not different between trials (p=0.84). Hepcidin25 levels increased 3 h post-exercise (p<0.001), however, they did not differ between trials (p=0.46) or diets (p=0.84). Conclusions: Strenuous exercise undertaken following chronic adaptation to a LCHF diet is associated with a greater post-exercise IL-6 response than when exercise is undertaken with high CHO availability. The elevated IL-6 response in athletes adapted to a LCHF diet is not attenuated by an acute increase in exogenous CHO availability. Despite diet-induced differences in IL-6 responses, no differences in hepcidin levels were evident, suggesting IL-6 is likely not the primary factor determining the magnitude of post-exercise hepcidin levels. Baseline iron status may be a more dominant factor regulating this response. Increased IL-6 levels may negatively influence other body processes, and the long-term impact of adhering to LCHF on other health outcomes warrants further investigation. Funded by the ACU Research Fund and the AIS High Performance Sport Research Fund.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)771-771
Number of pages1
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume51
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019

Cite this

Mckay, Alannah K. A. ; Peeling, Peter ; Pyne, David B. ; Welvaert, Marijke ; Tee, Nicolin ; Leckey, Jill J. ; Sharma, Avish P. ; Ross, Megan L. R. ; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A. ; van Swelm, Rachel P. L. ; Laarakkers, Coby M. ; Burke, Lousie M. / Acute Carbohydrate Consumption On The Iron-regulatory Response To Exercise In Elite Keto-adapted Endurance Athletes. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2019 ; Vol. 51, No. 6. pp. 771-771.
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title = "Acute Carbohydrate Consumption On The Iron-regulatory Response To Exercise In Elite Keto-adapted Endurance Athletes",
abstract = "It has been demonstrated adherence to a low carbohydrate (CHO) high fat (LCHF) diet can alter markers of iron metabolism in endurance athletes Purpose: To investigate the impact of CHO re-introduction in athletes previously adapted to a LCHF diet on subsequent inflammatory and hepcidin responses to exercise. Methods: In the three weeks prior to the exercise trials, twenty-three elite race walkers adhered to either a CHO-rich (n=14) or LCHF diet (n=9). A 19-25 km race walking protocol was performed while the race walkers were still adhering to their allocated dietary intervention (Adapt). A second exercise test was performed three days later, where the LCHF consumed CHO 2 h prior to, and during the exercise protocol (in line with sports nutrition guidelines) for the first time in 3.5 weeks (CHO Restoration). Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 3 h post-exercise and analysed for serum ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin-25. Results: Serum ferritin concentration was similar between trials (p=0.48) and dietary groups (p=0.93). The post-exercise IL-6 increase was greater in LCHF (p<0.001) during both Adapt (LCHF: 13.1-fold increase; CHO: 8.0-fold increase) and CHO Restoration (LCHF: 18.5-fold increase, CHO: 6.3-fold increase); outcomes were not different between trials (p=0.84). Hepcidin25 levels increased 3 h post-exercise (p<0.001), however, they did not differ between trials (p=0.46) or diets (p=0.84). Conclusions: Strenuous exercise undertaken following chronic adaptation to a LCHF diet is associated with a greater post-exercise IL-6 response than when exercise is undertaken with high CHO availability. The elevated IL-6 response in athletes adapted to a LCHF diet is not attenuated by an acute increase in exogenous CHO availability. Despite diet-induced differences in IL-6 responses, no differences in hepcidin levels were evident, suggesting IL-6 is likely not the primary factor determining the magnitude of post-exercise hepcidin levels. Baseline iron status may be a more dominant factor regulating this response. Increased IL-6 levels may negatively influence other body processes, and the long-term impact of adhering to LCHF on other health outcomes warrants further investigation. Funded by the ACU Research Fund and the AIS High Performance Sport Research Fund.",
author = "Mckay, {Alannah K. A.} and Peter Peeling and Pyne, {David B.} and Marijke Welvaert and Nicolin Tee and Leckey, {Jill J.} and Sharma, {Avish P.} and Ross, {Megan L. R.} and Garvican-Lewis, {Laura A.} and {van Swelm}, {Rachel P. L.} and Laarakkers, {Coby M.} and Burke, {Lousie M.}",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1249/01.mss.0000562799.86566.1a",
language = "English",
volume = "51",
pages = "771--771",
journal = "Medicine Science in Sports Exercise",
issn = "0195-9131",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "6",

}

Mckay, AKA, Peeling, P, Pyne, DB, Welvaert, M, Tee, N, Leckey, JJ, Sharma, AP, Ross, MLR, Garvican-Lewis, LA, van Swelm, RPL, Laarakkers, CM & Burke, LM 2019, 'Acute Carbohydrate Consumption On The Iron-regulatory Response To Exercise In Elite Keto-adapted Endurance Athletes', Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 771-771. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000562799.86566.1a

Acute Carbohydrate Consumption On The Iron-regulatory Response To Exercise In Elite Keto-adapted Endurance Athletes. / Mckay, Alannah K. A.; Peeling, Peter; Pyne, David B.; Welvaert, Marijke; Tee, Nicolin; Leckey, Jill J.; Sharma, Avish P.; Ross, Megan L. R.; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; van Swelm, Rachel P. L.; Laarakkers, Coby M.; Burke, Lousie M.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 51, No. 6, 06.2019, p. 771-771.

Research output: Contribution to journalMeeting Abstract

TY - JOUR

T1 - Acute Carbohydrate Consumption On The Iron-regulatory Response To Exercise In Elite Keto-adapted Endurance Athletes

AU - Mckay, Alannah K. A.

AU - Peeling, Peter

AU - Pyne, David B.

AU - Welvaert, Marijke

AU - Tee, Nicolin

AU - Leckey, Jill J.

AU - Sharma, Avish P.

AU - Ross, Megan L. R.

AU - Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.

AU - van Swelm, Rachel P. L.

AU - Laarakkers, Coby M.

AU - Burke, Lousie M.

PY - 2019/6

Y1 - 2019/6

N2 - It has been demonstrated adherence to a low carbohydrate (CHO) high fat (LCHF) diet can alter markers of iron metabolism in endurance athletes Purpose: To investigate the impact of CHO re-introduction in athletes previously adapted to a LCHF diet on subsequent inflammatory and hepcidin responses to exercise. Methods: In the three weeks prior to the exercise trials, twenty-three elite race walkers adhered to either a CHO-rich (n=14) or LCHF diet (n=9). A 19-25 km race walking protocol was performed while the race walkers were still adhering to their allocated dietary intervention (Adapt). A second exercise test was performed three days later, where the LCHF consumed CHO 2 h prior to, and during the exercise protocol (in line with sports nutrition guidelines) for the first time in 3.5 weeks (CHO Restoration). Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 3 h post-exercise and analysed for serum ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin-25. Results: Serum ferritin concentration was similar between trials (p=0.48) and dietary groups (p=0.93). The post-exercise IL-6 increase was greater in LCHF (p<0.001) during both Adapt (LCHF: 13.1-fold increase; CHO: 8.0-fold increase) and CHO Restoration (LCHF: 18.5-fold increase, CHO: 6.3-fold increase); outcomes were not different between trials (p=0.84). Hepcidin25 levels increased 3 h post-exercise (p<0.001), however, they did not differ between trials (p=0.46) or diets (p=0.84). Conclusions: Strenuous exercise undertaken following chronic adaptation to a LCHF diet is associated with a greater post-exercise IL-6 response than when exercise is undertaken with high CHO availability. The elevated IL-6 response in athletes adapted to a LCHF diet is not attenuated by an acute increase in exogenous CHO availability. Despite diet-induced differences in IL-6 responses, no differences in hepcidin levels were evident, suggesting IL-6 is likely not the primary factor determining the magnitude of post-exercise hepcidin levels. Baseline iron status may be a more dominant factor regulating this response. Increased IL-6 levels may negatively influence other body processes, and the long-term impact of adhering to LCHF on other health outcomes warrants further investigation. Funded by the ACU Research Fund and the AIS High Performance Sport Research Fund.

AB - It has been demonstrated adherence to a low carbohydrate (CHO) high fat (LCHF) diet can alter markers of iron metabolism in endurance athletes Purpose: To investigate the impact of CHO re-introduction in athletes previously adapted to a LCHF diet on subsequent inflammatory and hepcidin responses to exercise. Methods: In the three weeks prior to the exercise trials, twenty-three elite race walkers adhered to either a CHO-rich (n=14) or LCHF diet (n=9). A 19-25 km race walking protocol was performed while the race walkers were still adhering to their allocated dietary intervention (Adapt). A second exercise test was performed three days later, where the LCHF consumed CHO 2 h prior to, and during the exercise protocol (in line with sports nutrition guidelines) for the first time in 3.5 weeks (CHO Restoration). Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 3 h post-exercise and analysed for serum ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin-25. Results: Serum ferritin concentration was similar between trials (p=0.48) and dietary groups (p=0.93). The post-exercise IL-6 increase was greater in LCHF (p<0.001) during both Adapt (LCHF: 13.1-fold increase; CHO: 8.0-fold increase) and CHO Restoration (LCHF: 18.5-fold increase, CHO: 6.3-fold increase); outcomes were not different between trials (p=0.84). Hepcidin25 levels increased 3 h post-exercise (p<0.001), however, they did not differ between trials (p=0.46) or diets (p=0.84). Conclusions: Strenuous exercise undertaken following chronic adaptation to a LCHF diet is associated with a greater post-exercise IL-6 response than when exercise is undertaken with high CHO availability. The elevated IL-6 response in athletes adapted to a LCHF diet is not attenuated by an acute increase in exogenous CHO availability. Despite diet-induced differences in IL-6 responses, no differences in hepcidin levels were evident, suggesting IL-6 is likely not the primary factor determining the magnitude of post-exercise hepcidin levels. Baseline iron status may be a more dominant factor regulating this response. Increased IL-6 levels may negatively influence other body processes, and the long-term impact of adhering to LCHF on other health outcomes warrants further investigation. Funded by the ACU Research Fund and the AIS High Performance Sport Research Fund.

U2 - 10.1249/01.mss.0000562799.86566.1a

DO - 10.1249/01.mss.0000562799.86566.1a

M3 - Meeting Abstract

VL - 51

SP - 771

EP - 771

JO - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

JF - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

SN - 0195-9131

IS - 6

ER -