Adding heat to the live-high train-low altitude model

a practical insight from professional football

Martin Buchheit, Sebastien Racinais, J Bilsborough, Jane Hocking, A Mendez-Villanueva, Pitre C. Bourdon, S Voss, S Livingston, Ryan Christian, J Périard, J Cordy, Aaron J. Coutts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To examine with a parallel group study design the performance and physiological responses to a 14-day off-season 'live high-train low in the heat' training camp in elite football players.

METHODS: Seventeen professional Australian Rules Football players participated in outdoor football-specific skills (32 ± 1°C, 11.5 h) and indoor strength (23 ± 1°C, 9.3 h) sessions and slept (12 nights) and cycled indoors (4.3 h) in either normal air (NORM, n=8) or normobaric hypoxia (14 ± 1 h/day, FiO2 15.2-14.3%, corresponding to a simulated altitude of 2500-3000 m, hypoxic (HYP), n=9). They completed the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (Yo-YoIR2) in temperate conditions (23 ± 1°C, normal air) precamp (Pre) and postcamp (Post). Plasma volume (PV) and haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) were measured at similar times and 4 weeks postcamp (4WPost). Sweat sodium concentration ((Na(+))(sweat)) was measured Pre and Post during a heat-response test (44°C).

RESULTS: Both groups showed very large improvements in Yo-YoIR2 at Post (+44%; 90% CL 38, 50), with no between-group differences in the changes (-1%; -9, 9). Postcamp, large changes in PV (+5.6%; -1.8, 5.6) and (Na(+))sweat (-29%; -37, -19) were observed in both groups, while Hb(mass) only moderately increased in HYP (+2.6%; 0.5, 4.5). At 4WPost, there was a likely slightly greater increase in Hb(mass) (+4.6%; 0.0, 9.3) and PV (+6%; -5, 18, unclear) in HYP than in NORM.

CONCLUSIONS: The combination of heat and hypoxic exposure during sleep/training might offer a promising 'conditioning cocktail' in team sports.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)i59-69
JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume47 Suppl 1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Football
Sweat
Plasma Volume
Hot Temperature
Air
Sports
Sleep
Hemoglobins
Sodium

Cite this

Buchheit, M., Racinais, S., Bilsborough, J., Hocking, J., Mendez-Villanueva, A., Bourdon, P. C., ... Coutts, A. J. (2013). Adding heat to the live-high train-low altitude model: a practical insight from professional football. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47 Suppl 1, i59-69. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092559
Buchheit, Martin ; Racinais, Sebastien ; Bilsborough, J ; Hocking, Jane ; Mendez-Villanueva, A ; Bourdon, Pitre C. ; Voss, S ; Livingston, S ; Christian, Ryan ; Périard, J ; Cordy, J ; Coutts, Aaron J. / Adding heat to the live-high train-low altitude model : a practical insight from professional football. In: British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013 ; Vol. 47 Suppl 1. pp. i59-69.
@article{89356b7d4f6a461d8f2d3d14ffac9690,
title = "Adding heat to the live-high train-low altitude model: a practical insight from professional football",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: To examine with a parallel group study design the performance and physiological responses to a 14-day off-season 'live high-train low in the heat' training camp in elite football players.METHODS: Seventeen professional Australian Rules Football players participated in outdoor football-specific skills (32 ± 1°C, 11.5 h) and indoor strength (23 ± 1°C, 9.3 h) sessions and slept (12 nights) and cycled indoors (4.3 h) in either normal air (NORM, n=8) or normobaric hypoxia (14 ± 1 h/day, FiO2 15.2-14.3{\%}, corresponding to a simulated altitude of 2500-3000 m, hypoxic (HYP), n=9). They completed the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (Yo-YoIR2) in temperate conditions (23 ± 1°C, normal air) precamp (Pre) and postcamp (Post). Plasma volume (PV) and haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) were measured at similar times and 4 weeks postcamp (4WPost). Sweat sodium concentration ((Na(+))(sweat)) was measured Pre and Post during a heat-response test (44°C).RESULTS: Both groups showed very large improvements in Yo-YoIR2 at Post (+44{\%}; 90{\%} CL 38, 50), with no between-group differences in the changes (-1{\%}; -9, 9). Postcamp, large changes in PV (+5.6{\%}; -1.8, 5.6) and (Na(+))sweat (-29{\%}; -37, -19) were observed in both groups, while Hb(mass) only moderately increased in HYP (+2.6{\%}; 0.5, 4.5). At 4WPost, there was a likely slightly greater increase in Hb(mass) (+4.6{\%}; 0.0, 9.3) and PV (+6{\%}; -5, 18, unclear) in HYP than in NORM.CONCLUSIONS: The combination of heat and hypoxic exposure during sleep/training might offer a promising 'conditioning cocktail' in team sports.",
keywords = "Acclimatization, Altitude, Athletic Performance, Atmospheric Pressure, Australia, Blood Volume, Exercise, Football, Hemoglobins, Hot Temperature, Humans, Hypoxia, Running, Sleep, Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't",
author = "Martin Buchheit and Sebastien Racinais and J Bilsborough and Jane Hocking and A Mendez-Villanueva and Bourdon, {Pitre C.} and S Voss and S Livingston and Ryan Christian and J P{\'e}riard and J Cordy and Coutts, {Aaron J.}",
year = "2013",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1136/bjsports-2013-092559",
language = "English",
volume = "47 Suppl 1",
pages = "i59--69",
journal = "British Journal of Sports Medicine",
issn = "0306-3674",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",

}

Buchheit, M, Racinais, S, Bilsborough, J, Hocking, J, Mendez-Villanueva, A, Bourdon, PC, Voss, S, Livingston, S, Christian, R, Périard, J, Cordy, J & Coutts, AJ 2013, 'Adding heat to the live-high train-low altitude model: a practical insight from professional football', British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 47 Suppl 1, pp. i59-69. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092559

Adding heat to the live-high train-low altitude model : a practical insight from professional football. / Buchheit, Martin; Racinais, Sebastien; Bilsborough, J; Hocking, Jane; Mendez-Villanueva, A; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Voss, S; Livingston, S; Christian, Ryan; Périard, J; Cordy, J; Coutts, Aaron J.

In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 47 Suppl 1, 12.2013, p. i59-69.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Adding heat to the live-high train-low altitude model

T2 - a practical insight from professional football

AU - Buchheit, Martin

AU - Racinais, Sebastien

AU - Bilsborough, J

AU - Hocking, Jane

AU - Mendez-Villanueva, A

AU - Bourdon, Pitre C.

AU - Voss, S

AU - Livingston, S

AU - Christian, Ryan

AU - Périard, J

AU - Cordy, J

AU - Coutts, Aaron J.

PY - 2013/12

Y1 - 2013/12

N2 - OBJECTIVES: To examine with a parallel group study design the performance and physiological responses to a 14-day off-season 'live high-train low in the heat' training camp in elite football players.METHODS: Seventeen professional Australian Rules Football players participated in outdoor football-specific skills (32 ± 1°C, 11.5 h) and indoor strength (23 ± 1°C, 9.3 h) sessions and slept (12 nights) and cycled indoors (4.3 h) in either normal air (NORM, n=8) or normobaric hypoxia (14 ± 1 h/day, FiO2 15.2-14.3%, corresponding to a simulated altitude of 2500-3000 m, hypoxic (HYP), n=9). They completed the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (Yo-YoIR2) in temperate conditions (23 ± 1°C, normal air) precamp (Pre) and postcamp (Post). Plasma volume (PV) and haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) were measured at similar times and 4 weeks postcamp (4WPost). Sweat sodium concentration ((Na(+))(sweat)) was measured Pre and Post during a heat-response test (44°C).RESULTS: Both groups showed very large improvements in Yo-YoIR2 at Post (+44%; 90% CL 38, 50), with no between-group differences in the changes (-1%; -9, 9). Postcamp, large changes in PV (+5.6%; -1.8, 5.6) and (Na(+))sweat (-29%; -37, -19) were observed in both groups, while Hb(mass) only moderately increased in HYP (+2.6%; 0.5, 4.5). At 4WPost, there was a likely slightly greater increase in Hb(mass) (+4.6%; 0.0, 9.3) and PV (+6%; -5, 18, unclear) in HYP than in NORM.CONCLUSIONS: The combination of heat and hypoxic exposure during sleep/training might offer a promising 'conditioning cocktail' in team sports.

AB - OBJECTIVES: To examine with a parallel group study design the performance and physiological responses to a 14-day off-season 'live high-train low in the heat' training camp in elite football players.METHODS: Seventeen professional Australian Rules Football players participated in outdoor football-specific skills (32 ± 1°C, 11.5 h) and indoor strength (23 ± 1°C, 9.3 h) sessions and slept (12 nights) and cycled indoors (4.3 h) in either normal air (NORM, n=8) or normobaric hypoxia (14 ± 1 h/day, FiO2 15.2-14.3%, corresponding to a simulated altitude of 2500-3000 m, hypoxic (HYP), n=9). They completed the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (Yo-YoIR2) in temperate conditions (23 ± 1°C, normal air) precamp (Pre) and postcamp (Post). Plasma volume (PV) and haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) were measured at similar times and 4 weeks postcamp (4WPost). Sweat sodium concentration ((Na(+))(sweat)) was measured Pre and Post during a heat-response test (44°C).RESULTS: Both groups showed very large improvements in Yo-YoIR2 at Post (+44%; 90% CL 38, 50), with no between-group differences in the changes (-1%; -9, 9). Postcamp, large changes in PV (+5.6%; -1.8, 5.6) and (Na(+))sweat (-29%; -37, -19) were observed in both groups, while Hb(mass) only moderately increased in HYP (+2.6%; 0.5, 4.5). At 4WPost, there was a likely slightly greater increase in Hb(mass) (+4.6%; 0.0, 9.3) and PV (+6%; -5, 18, unclear) in HYP than in NORM.CONCLUSIONS: The combination of heat and hypoxic exposure during sleep/training might offer a promising 'conditioning cocktail' in team sports.

KW - Acclimatization

KW - Altitude

KW - Athletic Performance

KW - Atmospheric Pressure

KW - Australia

KW - Blood Volume

KW - Exercise

KW - Football

KW - Hemoglobins

KW - Hot Temperature

KW - Humans

KW - Hypoxia

KW - Running

KW - Sleep

KW - Journal Article

KW - Randomized Controlled Trial

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

U2 - 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092559

DO - 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092559

M3 - Article

VL - 47 Suppl 1

SP - i59-69

JO - British Journal of Sports Medicine

JF - British Journal of Sports Medicine

SN - 0306-3674

ER -

Buchheit M, Racinais S, Bilsborough J, Hocking J, Mendez-Villanueva A, Bourdon PC et al. Adding heat to the live-high train-low altitude model: a practical insight from professional football. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013 Dec;47 Suppl 1:i59-69. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092559