Introduction: Kneeling is an activity of daily living which becomes difficult with knee pathology and increasing age. This study aimed to capture kneeling kinematics in six-degrees-of-freedom in healthy adults as a function of age. Methods: 67 healthy knee participants aged from 20 to 90 years were categorised into four 20-year age-groups. 3D knee kinematics were captured using 3D/2D image-registration of CT scan and fluoroscopy during kneeling. Kinematic variables of position, displacement and rate-of-change in six-degrees-of-freedom were compared between age-groups while controlling for University of California Los Angeles activity scale and the Assessment of Quality of Life physical score. Results: Over the entire kneeling cycle there were few differences between the age-groups. Results are reported as pairwise contrasts. At 110° flexion, 80+ knees were more varus than 20–39 and 40–69 (4.9° (95%CI: 0.6°, 9.1°) and 6.4° (2.1°, 10.7°), respectively). At 120° flexion, the 80+ age-group femur was 5.5 (0.0, 11.0) mm more anterior than 20–39. Between 120° to maximum flexion, 80+ knees rotated into valgus more than 20–39, 40–59 and 60–79 (5.5° (1.2°, 9.8°); 5.5° (1.1°, 9.8°); and 4.5° (0.9°, 7.5°), respectively). Conclusion: This is the first study to report kneeling knee kinematics of ageing using 3D/2D image registration. We found that ageing does not change knee kinematics under 80 years, and there are minimal changes between 120° and maximum flexion between the younger and 80+ age-groups. Thus, difficulty kneeling should not be considered to be an inevitable consequence of ageing.
Galvin, C. R., Perriman, D. M., Lynch, J. T., Pickering, M. R., Newman, P., Smith, P. N., & Scarvell, J. M. (2019). Age has a minimal effect on knee kinematics: A cross-sectional 3D/2D image-registration study of kneeling. The Knee, 26(5), 988-1002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knee.2019.07.012