Alterations in gut microbiota caused by major depressive disorder or a low FODMAP diet and where they overlap

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Beneficial changes in microbiota observed in individuals with a major depressive disorder (MDD) may be initiated with a low fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol (FODMAP) elimination diet. Academic Search Ultimate, APA PsychINFO, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science were searched for original research documenting differences in microbiota in MDD or changes with a low FODMAP diet in adults (age 18 years +). Studies with fecal microbiota, 16 s RNA sequencing and QIIME pipelines were included. Studies using antibiotics, probiotics, and medications such as antidepressants were excluded. Additionally, studies based on a single gender were excluded as gender impacts microbiota changes in MDD. Four studies addressed differences in microbiota with MDD and another four assessed shifts occurring with a low FODMAP diet. The abundance of Bacteroidetes, Bacteroidaceae and Bacteroides were lower in individuals with MDD but increased with a low FODMAP diet. Abundance of Ruminoccaceae was lower and Bilophila was higher with both a low FODMAP diet and MDD. These results provide preliminary evidence that a low FODMAP diet might drive changes in microbiota that also benefit people with MDD. Further research to assess whether a low FODMAP diet can treat MDD through modification of targeted microbiota is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1303405
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Nutrition
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


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