Altitude training and haemoglobin mass from the optimised carbon monoxide rebreathing method determined by a meta-Analysis

Christopher Gore, Ken Sharpe, Laura GARVICAN, Philo SAUNDERS, Clare Humberstone, Eileen Robertson, Nadine Wachsmuth, Sally Clark, Blake McLean, Birgit Friedmann-Bette, Mitsuo Neya, Torben Pottgiesser, Yorck Schumacher, Walter Schmidt

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Abstract

Objective To characterise the time course of changes in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in response to altitude exposure. Methods This meta-analysis uses raw data from 17 studies that used carbon monoxide rebreathing to determine Hbmass prealtitude, during altitude and postaltitude. Seven studies were classic altitude training, eight were live high train low (LHTL) and two mixed classic and LHTL. Separate linear-mixed models were fitted to the data from the 17 studies and the resultant estimates of the effects of altitude used in a random effects meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of altitude, with separate analyses during altitude and postaltitude. In addition, within-subject differences from the prealtitude phase for altitude participant and all the data on control participants were used to estimate the analytical SD. The 'true' between-subject response to altitude was estimated from the within-subject differences on altitude participants, between the prealtitude and during-altitude phases, together with the estimated analytical SD. Results During-altitude Hbmass was estimated to increase by ~1.1%/100 h for LHTL and classic altitude. Postaltitude Hbmass was estimated to be 3.3% higher than prealtitude values for up to 20 days. The withinsubject SD was constant at ~2% for up to 7 days between observations, indicative of analytical error. A 95% prediction interval for the 'true' response of an athlete exposed to 300 h of altitude was estimated to be 1.1-6%. Conclusions Camps as short as 2 weeks of classic and LHTL altitude will quite likely increase Hbmass and most athletes can expect benefit.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-39
Number of pages9
JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume47
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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Carbon Monoxide
Meta-Analysis
Hemoglobins
Athletes
Linear Models

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Gore, Christopher ; Sharpe, Ken ; GARVICAN, Laura ; SAUNDERS, Philo ; Humberstone, Clare ; Robertson, Eileen ; Wachsmuth, Nadine ; Clark, Sally ; McLean, Blake ; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit ; Neya, Mitsuo ; Pottgiesser, Torben ; Schumacher, Yorck ; Schmidt, Walter. / Altitude training and haemoglobin mass from the optimised carbon monoxide rebreathing method determined by a meta-Analysis. In: British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013 ; Vol. 47, No. SUPPL. 1. pp. 31-39.
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title = "Altitude training and haemoglobin mass from the optimised carbon monoxide rebreathing method determined by a meta-Analysis",
abstract = "Objective To characterise the time course of changes in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in response to altitude exposure. Methods This meta-analysis uses raw data from 17 studies that used carbon monoxide rebreathing to determine Hbmass prealtitude, during altitude and postaltitude. Seven studies were classic altitude training, eight were live high train low (LHTL) and two mixed classic and LHTL. Separate linear-mixed models were fitted to the data from the 17 studies and the resultant estimates of the effects of altitude used in a random effects meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of altitude, with separate analyses during altitude and postaltitude. In addition, within-subject differences from the prealtitude phase for altitude participant and all the data on control participants were used to estimate the analytical SD. The 'true' between-subject response to altitude was estimated from the within-subject differences on altitude participants, between the prealtitude and during-altitude phases, together with the estimated analytical SD. Results During-altitude Hbmass was estimated to increase by ~1.1{\%}/100 h for LHTL and classic altitude. Postaltitude Hbmass was estimated to be 3.3{\%} higher than prealtitude values for up to 20 days. The withinsubject SD was constant at ~2{\%} for up to 7 days between observations, indicative of analytical error. A 95{\%} prediction interval for the 'true' response of an athlete exposed to 300 h of altitude was estimated to be 1.1-6{\%}. Conclusions Camps as short as 2 weeks of classic and LHTL altitude will quite likely increase Hbmass and most athletes can expect benefit.",
author = "Christopher Gore and Ken Sharpe and Laura GARVICAN and Philo SAUNDERS and Clare Humberstone and Eileen Robertson and Nadine Wachsmuth and Sally Clark and Blake McLean and Birgit Friedmann-Bette and Mitsuo Neya and Torben Pottgiesser and Yorck Schumacher and Walter Schmidt",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1136/bjsports-2013-092840",
language = "English",
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Gore, C, Sharpe, K, GARVICAN, L, SAUNDERS, P, Humberstone, C, Robertson, E, Wachsmuth, N, Clark, S, McLean, B, Friedmann-Bette, B, Neya, M, Pottgiesser, T, Schumacher, Y & Schmidt, W 2013, 'Altitude training and haemoglobin mass from the optimised carbon monoxide rebreathing method determined by a meta-Analysis', British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 47, no. SUPPL. 1, pp. 31-39. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092840

Altitude training and haemoglobin mass from the optimised carbon monoxide rebreathing method determined by a meta-Analysis. / Gore, Christopher; Sharpe, Ken; GARVICAN, Laura; SAUNDERS, Philo; Humberstone, Clare; Robertson, Eileen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Clark, Sally; McLean, Blake; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Neya, Mitsuo; Pottgiesser, Torben; Schumacher, Yorck; Schmidt, Walter.

In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 47, No. SUPPL. 1, 2013, p. 31-39.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Altitude training and haemoglobin mass from the optimised carbon monoxide rebreathing method determined by a meta-Analysis

AU - Gore, Christopher

AU - Sharpe, Ken

AU - GARVICAN, Laura

AU - SAUNDERS, Philo

AU - Humberstone, Clare

AU - Robertson, Eileen

AU - Wachsmuth, Nadine

AU - Clark, Sally

AU - McLean, Blake

AU - Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

AU - Neya, Mitsuo

AU - Pottgiesser, Torben

AU - Schumacher, Yorck

AU - Schmidt, Walter

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Objective To characterise the time course of changes in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in response to altitude exposure. Methods This meta-analysis uses raw data from 17 studies that used carbon monoxide rebreathing to determine Hbmass prealtitude, during altitude and postaltitude. Seven studies were classic altitude training, eight were live high train low (LHTL) and two mixed classic and LHTL. Separate linear-mixed models were fitted to the data from the 17 studies and the resultant estimates of the effects of altitude used in a random effects meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of altitude, with separate analyses during altitude and postaltitude. In addition, within-subject differences from the prealtitude phase for altitude participant and all the data on control participants were used to estimate the analytical SD. The 'true' between-subject response to altitude was estimated from the within-subject differences on altitude participants, between the prealtitude and during-altitude phases, together with the estimated analytical SD. Results During-altitude Hbmass was estimated to increase by ~1.1%/100 h for LHTL and classic altitude. Postaltitude Hbmass was estimated to be 3.3% higher than prealtitude values for up to 20 days. The withinsubject SD was constant at ~2% for up to 7 days between observations, indicative of analytical error. A 95% prediction interval for the 'true' response of an athlete exposed to 300 h of altitude was estimated to be 1.1-6%. Conclusions Camps as short as 2 weeks of classic and LHTL altitude will quite likely increase Hbmass and most athletes can expect benefit.

AB - Objective To characterise the time course of changes in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in response to altitude exposure. Methods This meta-analysis uses raw data from 17 studies that used carbon monoxide rebreathing to determine Hbmass prealtitude, during altitude and postaltitude. Seven studies were classic altitude training, eight were live high train low (LHTL) and two mixed classic and LHTL. Separate linear-mixed models were fitted to the data from the 17 studies and the resultant estimates of the effects of altitude used in a random effects meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of altitude, with separate analyses during altitude and postaltitude. In addition, within-subject differences from the prealtitude phase for altitude participant and all the data on control participants were used to estimate the analytical SD. The 'true' between-subject response to altitude was estimated from the within-subject differences on altitude participants, between the prealtitude and during-altitude phases, together with the estimated analytical SD. Results During-altitude Hbmass was estimated to increase by ~1.1%/100 h for LHTL and classic altitude. Postaltitude Hbmass was estimated to be 3.3% higher than prealtitude values for up to 20 days. The withinsubject SD was constant at ~2% for up to 7 days between observations, indicative of analytical error. A 95% prediction interval for the 'true' response of an athlete exposed to 300 h of altitude was estimated to be 1.1-6%. Conclusions Camps as short as 2 weeks of classic and LHTL altitude will quite likely increase Hbmass and most athletes can expect benefit.

U2 - 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092840

DO - 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092840

M3 - Article

VL - 47

SP - 31

EP - 39

JO - British Journal of Sports Medicine

JF - British Journal of Sports Medicine

SN - 0306-3674

IS - SUPPL. 1

ER -