Objectives: To explore the four Rs of radiobiology (Repair, Reoxygenation, Reassortment, and Repopulation) as a means to understand the effects of ionising radiation on biological tissue and subsequently as the basis for conventional fractionated treatment schedules. These radiobiological principles will form a rationale for combined regimens in prostate cancer treatment involving androgen deprivation therapy and radiation therapy and the associated toxicities of this approach will be discussed. Data Sources: Electronic databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, Scopus, professional websites, books and grey literature were searched using Google Scholar. Conclusion: It is important for nurses to understand the four Rs of radiobiology to grasp the effects of ionising radiation on biological tissue as the basis for conventional fractionated treatment schedules in prostate cancer. Men can experience a sequalae of physical and psychological side effects of treatment that can negatively impact quality of life. Implications for Nursing Practice: Men can experience a range of unmet supportive care needs particularly related to informational, sexual, and psychological needs. For men affected by prostate cancer opting for radiation therapy (+/-) androgen deprivation therapy, nurses should ask targeted questions based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events related to urinary and bowel function, potency and fatigue, and sexual health. We also recommend the use of holistic needs assessments to tailor self-management care plans. Evidence-based self-management advice should be provided in response to each man's unique needs.