The Stemformatics myeloid atlas is an integrated transcriptome atlas of human macrophages and dendritic cells that systematically compares freshly isolated tissue-resident, cultured, and pluripotent stem cell-derived myeloid cells. Three classes of tissue-resident macrophage were identified: Kupffer cells and microglia; monocyte-associated; and tumor-associated macrophages. Culture had a major impact on all primary cell phenotypes. Pluripotent stem cell-derived macrophages were characterized by atypical expression of collagen and a highly efferocytotic phenotype. Myeloid subsets, and phenotypes associated with derivation, were reproducible across experimental series including data projected from single-cell studies, demonstrating that the atlas provides a robust reference for myeloid phenotypes. Implementation in Stemformatics.org allows users to visualize patterns of sample grouping or gene expression for user-selected conditions and supports temporary upload of your own microarray or RNA sequencing samples, including single-cell data, to benchmark against the atlas.