Anthropometric standards for Australian primary school children: Towards a system for monitoring and supporting children's development

Tom COCHRANE, Rachel DAVEY, F. Robert de Castella

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Objectives To provide two foundation elements of a proposed new system to support children's physical and body status development throughout primary school: (a) age and gender appropriate achievement (anthropometric) standards and (b) a system of monitoring, feedback and support. Design Repeated cross-sectional sampling involving 91 schools across 5 Australian States and Territories between 2000 and 2011. Methods Anthropometric data from 29,928 (14,643 girls, 15,285 boys) Australian children aged between 5 and 12.5 years were used to develop progression standards (norm centiles) covering the primary school years. Measures used were: height, weight, body mass index, per cent body fat, grip strength, standing long jump, cardiorespiratory fitness, sit-ups and sit-and-reach. These norms were then used to develop a Physical Activity and Lifestyle Management (PALM) system that could form the basis for progression, monitoring and reporting of anthropometric achievement standards for children. Results Tables and representative centile curves (3rd, 15th, 50th, 85th and 97th) for each gender and half-year age group were produced. An illustrative example of the PALM system in operation was also provided. Conclusions Our research provides gender and half-year age specific anthropometric standards for Australian primary school children. Furthermore, we have developed a monitoring and progression system that could be embedded in school communities to help address the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity and decline in physical fitness standards. The proposed system is designed on behalf of children and families and would be administered through school settings. Change, where needed, would be delivered by the supporting school community.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)284-289
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport
    Volume20
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017

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    Child Development
    Life Style
    Exercise
    Physical Fitness
    Thinness
    Hand Strength
    Adipose Tissue
    Body Mass Index
    Age Groups
    Obesity
    Weights and Measures
    Research

    Cite this

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    title = "Anthropometric standards for Australian primary school children: Towards a system for monitoring and supporting children's development",
    abstract = "Objectives To provide two foundation elements of a proposed new system to support children's physical and body status development throughout primary school: (a) age and gender appropriate achievement (anthropometric) standards and (b) a system of monitoring, feedback and support. Design Repeated cross-sectional sampling involving 91 schools across 5 Australian States and Territories between 2000 and 2011. Methods Anthropometric data from 29,928 (14,643 girls, 15,285 boys) Australian children aged between 5 and 12.5 years were used to develop progression standards (norm centiles) covering the primary school years. Measures used were: height, weight, body mass index, per cent body fat, grip strength, standing long jump, cardiorespiratory fitness, sit-ups and sit-and-reach. These norms were then used to develop a Physical Activity and Lifestyle Management (PALM) system that could form the basis for progression, monitoring and reporting of anthropometric achievement standards for children. Results Tables and representative centile curves (3rd, 15th, 50th, 85th and 97th) for each gender and half-year age group were produced. An illustrative example of the PALM system in operation was also provided. Conclusions Our research provides gender and half-year age specific anthropometric standards for Australian primary school children. Furthermore, we have developed a monitoring and progression system that could be embedded in school communities to help address the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity and decline in physical fitness standards. The proposed system is designed on behalf of children and families and would be administered through school settings. Change, where needed, would be delivered by the supporting school community.",
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    Anthropometric standards for Australian primary school children: Towards a system for monitoring and supporting children's development. / COCHRANE, Tom; DAVEY, Rachel; de Castella, F. Robert.

    In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Vol. 20, No. 3, 01.03.2017, p. 284-289.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Anthropometric standards for Australian primary school children: Towards a system for monitoring and supporting children's development

    AU - COCHRANE, Tom

    AU - DAVEY, Rachel

    AU - de Castella, F. Robert

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    N2 - Objectives To provide two foundation elements of a proposed new system to support children's physical and body status development throughout primary school: (a) age and gender appropriate achievement (anthropometric) standards and (b) a system of monitoring, feedback and support. Design Repeated cross-sectional sampling involving 91 schools across 5 Australian States and Territories between 2000 and 2011. Methods Anthropometric data from 29,928 (14,643 girls, 15,285 boys) Australian children aged between 5 and 12.5 years were used to develop progression standards (norm centiles) covering the primary school years. Measures used were: height, weight, body mass index, per cent body fat, grip strength, standing long jump, cardiorespiratory fitness, sit-ups and sit-and-reach. These norms were then used to develop a Physical Activity and Lifestyle Management (PALM) system that could form the basis for progression, monitoring and reporting of anthropometric achievement standards for children. Results Tables and representative centile curves (3rd, 15th, 50th, 85th and 97th) for each gender and half-year age group were produced. An illustrative example of the PALM system in operation was also provided. Conclusions Our research provides gender and half-year age specific anthropometric standards for Australian primary school children. Furthermore, we have developed a monitoring and progression system that could be embedded in school communities to help address the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity and decline in physical fitness standards. The proposed system is designed on behalf of children and families and would be administered through school settings. Change, where needed, would be delivered by the supporting school community.

    AB - Objectives To provide two foundation elements of a proposed new system to support children's physical and body status development throughout primary school: (a) age and gender appropriate achievement (anthropometric) standards and (b) a system of monitoring, feedback and support. Design Repeated cross-sectional sampling involving 91 schools across 5 Australian States and Territories between 2000 and 2011. Methods Anthropometric data from 29,928 (14,643 girls, 15,285 boys) Australian children aged between 5 and 12.5 years were used to develop progression standards (norm centiles) covering the primary school years. Measures used were: height, weight, body mass index, per cent body fat, grip strength, standing long jump, cardiorespiratory fitness, sit-ups and sit-and-reach. These norms were then used to develop a Physical Activity and Lifestyle Management (PALM) system that could form the basis for progression, monitoring and reporting of anthropometric achievement standards for children. Results Tables and representative centile curves (3rd, 15th, 50th, 85th and 97th) for each gender and half-year age group were produced. An illustrative example of the PALM system in operation was also provided. Conclusions Our research provides gender and half-year age specific anthropometric standards for Australian primary school children. Furthermore, we have developed a monitoring and progression system that could be embedded in school communities to help address the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity and decline in physical fitness standards. The proposed system is designed on behalf of children and families and would be administered through school settings. Change, where needed, would be delivered by the supporting school community.

    KW - Childhood obesity

    KW - Performance standards

    KW - Physical fitness

    KW - Prevention

    KW - Reference growth standards

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    DO - 10.1016/j.jsams.2016.08.015

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    JO - Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

    JF - Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

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    ER -