The Davidson's plum (DP; Davidsonia pruriens F. Muell) is a fruit native to Australia that is a rich source of phenolic compounds. This study investigated the effects of various extraction solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone and water) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH, CUPRAC, FRAP assays) and anti-proliferative activity (MTT, CCK-8 assays) of DP. Our data revealed that extraction solvents significantly affected the physico-chemical, antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties of DP extracts. Within the tested solvents, ethanol was found to be the optimal solvent for extraction of bioactive compounds from DP as its extract had the greatest TPC (94.13 GAE/g), flavonoids (78.33 mg RUE/g), proanthocyanidins (5.33 mg CAE/g), anthocyanidins (2.81 mg CGE/g), as well as possessed the highest antioxidant capacity and anti-proliferative activity against a panel of cancer cell lines. This included cancers of the pancreas, breast, lung, brain, skin, colon and ovary. Therefore, further investigations should be conducted to identify key bioactive compounds to determine the potential for utilization in the nutraceutical and phytopharmaceutical industries.