Breast cancer screening (BCS) participation rates are often suboptimal and vary geographically. Environmental features may influence BCS participation, but few studies have assessed this relationship. This study assessed the associations between BCS participation, residential area sociodemographic characteristics, distance to BCS venue, and venue location attributes. Data for 384,433 women residing in Greater Sydney, Australia, invited to BCS during 2011–2014 were spatially joined to their state suburb (SSC) (n = 800). SSC sociodemographic measures included women's median age, proportion women speaking English at home, full-time employed, and university educated; and proportion dwellings with motor-vehicles. Road network distance was calculated to each BCS venue. BCS venues were coded as co-located with bus-stop, train-station, hospital, general practitioner (GP), and shop. Hot spots were calculated to quantify spatial clustering of BCS participation. Multilevel logistic models were used to estimate the associations between environmental predictors and BCS participation, accounting for SSC-level clustering. BCS participation was 53.9% and spatially clustered. BCS was positively associated with SSC-level median age for women, proportions women speaking English and university educated, and dwellings with motor-vehicles. Distance to venue was inversely associated with BCS. Venue co-location with GP was positively associated and co-location with bus-stop, train-station, and shop, hospital were negatively associated with BCS. Residential sociodemographic features, geographic access, and venue location attributes are associated with BCS participation. These findings implicate the relevance of social and built environmental factors to programmatic aims to raise BCS participation. Additional research on venue location features is required to understand where best to site BCS venues.