Objective: To examine the associations between perceived proximity to neighborhood resources, disability, and social participation and the potential moderating effect of perceived proximity to neighborhood resources on the association between disability and social participation in community-dwelling older women and men. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community. Participants: Older adults (296 women, 258 men). Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Data for age, education, depressive symptoms, frequency of participation in community activities, perceived proximity to neighborhood resources (services, amenities), and functional autonomy in daily activities (disability) were collected by means of interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results: Greater perceived proximity to resources and lower level of disability were associated with greater social participation for both women (R(2)=.10; P<.001) and men (R(2)=.05; P<.01). The association between disability and social participation did not vary as a function of perceived proximity to neighborhood resources in women (no moderating effect; P=.15). However, in men, greater perceived proximity to neighborhood resources enhanced social participation (P=.01), but only in those with minor or no disability. Conclusions: Future studies should investigate why perceived proximity to services and amenities is associated with social participation in older men with minor or no disabilities and with women overall, but has no association in men with moderate disabilities.