B-group vitamin and mineral contents of soybeans during kinema production

Prabir K. Sarkar, Elizabeth Morrison, Ujang Tinggi, Shawn M. Somerset, Graham S. Craven

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45 Citations (Scopus)


Concentrations of several B-group vitamins, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and minerals, determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), in soybeans during different kinema production stages were compared. After soaking soybeans in water, thiamine (B1) content decreased, whereas riboflavin (B2) content remained unchanged. Cooking had no influence on the B1 content, but it enhanced the level of B2 and niacin (B3). Incubation of beans at 37°C for 48 h, when mixed with Bacillus subtilis, caused an increase in concentration of both B1 and B2. Vitamin B1 levels decreased when either Enterococcus faecium accompanied B subtilis or the temperature was elevated for 18 h fermentation. Traditionally prepared kinema contained 8 mg B1, 12 mg B2, 45 mg B3 683 mg Ca, 4 mg Cu, 18 mg Fe, 494 mg Mg, 10 mg Mn, 1257 mg P, 2077 mg K, 13 mg Zn and <0.5 mg of Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Na per kg dry matter. While the vitamin B1 content was significantly (P < 0.05) higher, the contents of vitamins B2 and B3 were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in raw soybeans than those in kinema. Mineral concentrations were 3.1-8.3 times higher in raw soybeans than in kinema.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)498-502
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 1998
Externally publishedYes


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