Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power

Christian J Cook, Liam P Kilduff, Blair T Crewther

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    Abstract

    This study investigated salivary testosterone (sal-T) variation across the menstrual cycle in female athletes, at different competitive levels, and its association with motivation and neuromuscular power. Six elite and 16 non-elite female athletes were monitored on days 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) across three menstrual cycles for basal sal-T concentrations and self-appraised motivation to train and compete. Two further measures were taken on D7, D14 and D21 across two menstrual cycles; (1) the sal-T response (delta change) to a physical stress test and (2) peak power (PP) response to a 6-sec cycle sprint following a post-activation potentiation (PAP) stimulus. Basal sal-T concentrations increased by 17±27% from D7 to D14 before decreasing by -25±43% on D21 (p<0.05), but this result was biased by elite females with higher sal-T (>102%) who showed larger menstrual changes. Motivation, sal-T reactivity to stress and the PP responses to a PAP stimulus also varied by testing day (p<0.05), in parallel to basal sal-T and in favour of the elite group. Furthermore, stronger within-subject relationships (p<0.001) between basal sal-T and motivation emerged in the elites (r = 0.70-0.75) versus the non-elites (r = 0.41-0.50). In conclusion, menstrual cycle changes in sal-T were more obvious in high-performing female athletes with higher sal-T concentrations. This was accompanied by greater training motivation, a more pronounced sal-T response to a physical stressor and greater neuromuscular power in the elite group. These results support observations that female athletes with higher T are more represented at elite levels of performance.

    LanguageEnglish
    Pages1345-1353
    Number of pages9
    JournalScandinavian Journal of Sports Sciences
    Volume28
    Early online date21 Dec 2017
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 2018

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    Menstrual Cycle
    Testosterone
    Muscles
    Athletes
    Exercise Test

    Cite this

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    title = "Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power",
    abstract = "This study investigated salivary testosterone (sal-T) variation across the menstrual cycle in female athletes, at different competitive levels, and its association with motivation and neuromuscular power. Six elite and 16 non-elite female athletes were monitored on days 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) across three menstrual cycles for basal sal-T concentrations and self-appraised motivation to train and compete. Two further measures were taken on D7, D14 and D21 across two menstrual cycles; (1) the sal-T response (delta change) to a physical stress test and (2) peak power (PP) response to a 6-sec cycle sprint following a post-activation potentiation (PAP) stimulus. Basal sal-T concentrations increased by 17±27{\%} from D7 to D14 before decreasing by -25±43{\%} on D21 (p<0.05), but this result was biased by elite females with higher sal-T (>102{\%}) who showed larger menstrual changes. Motivation, sal-T reactivity to stress and the PP responses to a PAP stimulus also varied by testing day (p<0.05), in parallel to basal sal-T and in favour of the elite group. Furthermore, stronger within-subject relationships (p<0.001) between basal sal-T and motivation emerged in the elites (r = 0.70-0.75) versus the non-elites (r = 0.41-0.50). In conclusion, menstrual cycle changes in sal-T were more obvious in high-performing female athletes with higher sal-T concentrations. This was accompanied by greater training motivation, a more pronounced sal-T response to a physical stressor and greater neuromuscular power in the elite group. These results support observations that female athletes with higher T are more represented at elite levels of performance.",
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    Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power. / Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P; Crewther, Blair T.

    In: Scandinavian Journal of Sports Sciences, Vol. 28, 2018, p. 1345-1353.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AU - Cook,Christian J

    AU - Kilduff,Liam P

    AU - Crewther,Blair T

    N1 - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    PY - 2018

    Y1 - 2018

    N2 - This study investigated salivary testosterone (sal-T) variation across the menstrual cycle in female athletes, at different competitive levels, and its association with motivation and neuromuscular power. Six elite and 16 non-elite female athletes were monitored on days 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) across three menstrual cycles for basal sal-T concentrations and self-appraised motivation to train and compete. Two further measures were taken on D7, D14 and D21 across two menstrual cycles; (1) the sal-T response (delta change) to a physical stress test and (2) peak power (PP) response to a 6-sec cycle sprint following a post-activation potentiation (PAP) stimulus. Basal sal-T concentrations increased by 17±27% from D7 to D14 before decreasing by -25±43% on D21 (p<0.05), but this result was biased by elite females with higher sal-T (>102%) who showed larger menstrual changes. Motivation, sal-T reactivity to stress and the PP responses to a PAP stimulus also varied by testing day (p<0.05), in parallel to basal sal-T and in favour of the elite group. Furthermore, stronger within-subject relationships (p<0.001) between basal sal-T and motivation emerged in the elites (r = 0.70-0.75) versus the non-elites (r = 0.41-0.50). In conclusion, menstrual cycle changes in sal-T were more obvious in high-performing female athletes with higher sal-T concentrations. This was accompanied by greater training motivation, a more pronounced sal-T response to a physical stressor and greater neuromuscular power in the elite group. These results support observations that female athletes with higher T are more represented at elite levels of performance.

    AB - This study investigated salivary testosterone (sal-T) variation across the menstrual cycle in female athletes, at different competitive levels, and its association with motivation and neuromuscular power. Six elite and 16 non-elite female athletes were monitored on days 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) across three menstrual cycles for basal sal-T concentrations and self-appraised motivation to train and compete. Two further measures were taken on D7, D14 and D21 across two menstrual cycles; (1) the sal-T response (delta change) to a physical stress test and (2) peak power (PP) response to a 6-sec cycle sprint following a post-activation potentiation (PAP) stimulus. Basal sal-T concentrations increased by 17±27% from D7 to D14 before decreasing by -25±43% on D21 (p<0.05), but this result was biased by elite females with higher sal-T (>102%) who showed larger menstrual changes. Motivation, sal-T reactivity to stress and the PP responses to a PAP stimulus also varied by testing day (p<0.05), in parallel to basal sal-T and in favour of the elite group. Furthermore, stronger within-subject relationships (p<0.001) between basal sal-T and motivation emerged in the elites (r = 0.70-0.75) versus the non-elites (r = 0.41-0.50). In conclusion, menstrual cycle changes in sal-T were more obvious in high-performing female athletes with higher sal-T concentrations. This was accompanied by greater training motivation, a more pronounced sal-T response to a physical stressor and greater neuromuscular power in the elite group. These results support observations that female athletes with higher T are more represented at elite levels of performance.

    KW - Anabolic

    KW - Androgens

    KW - Trainability

    KW - Recovery

    KW - Adaptation

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    JO - Scandinavian Journal of Sports Sciences

    T2 - Scandinavian Journal of Sports Sciences

    JF - Scandinavian Journal of Sports Sciences

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