Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise

Mathew G. Wilson, Georgina M. Ellison, N. Tim Cable

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    30 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼ 20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)93-99
    Number of pages7
    JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
    Volume50
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2016

    Fingerprint

    Blood Vessels
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Cell Size
    Stroke Volume
    Myocardium
    Heart Failure
    Heart Rate
    Mortality
    Growth
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness
    Therapeutics

    Cite this

    Wilson, Mathew G. ; Ellison, Georgina M. ; Cable, N. Tim. / Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise. In: British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016 ; Vol. 50, No. 2. pp. 93-99.
    @article{5badb1b5b091422492caae9d3d5a4230,
    title = "Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise",
    abstract = "Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼ 20{\%} and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be.",
    keywords = "Adaptation, Physiological/physiology, Cardiomegaly/physiopathology, Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology, Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena, Endothelium, Vascular/physiology, Exercise/physiology, Growth Substances/metabolism, Humans, Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis, Oxygen Consumption, Sports/physiology, Up-Regulation/physiology, Ventricular Remodeling/physiology",
    author = "Wilson, {Mathew G.} and Ellison, {Georgina M.} and Cable, {N. Tim}",
    note = "Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/",
    year = "2016",
    month = "1",
    doi = "10.1136/bjsports-2014-306596rep",
    language = "English",
    volume = "50",
    pages = "93--99",
    journal = "British Journal of Sports Medicine",
    issn = "0306-3674",
    publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",
    number = "2",

    }

    Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise. / Wilson, Mathew G.; Ellison, Georgina M.; Cable, N. Tim.

    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 2, 01.2016, p. 93-99.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    AU - Wilson, Mathew G.

    AU - Ellison, Georgina M.

    AU - Cable, N. Tim

    N1 - Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

    PY - 2016/1

    Y1 - 2016/1

    N2 - Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼ 20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be.

    AB - Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼ 20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be.

    KW - Adaptation, Physiological/physiology

    KW - Cardiomegaly/physiopathology

    KW - Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology

    KW - Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena

    KW - Endothelium, Vascular/physiology

    KW - Exercise/physiology

    KW - Growth Substances/metabolism

    KW - Humans

    KW - Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis

    KW - Oxygen Consumption

    KW - Sports/physiology

    KW - Up-Regulation/physiology

    KW - Ventricular Remodeling/physiology

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84954305606&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/basic-science-behind-cardiovascular-benefits-exercise

    U2 - 10.1136/bjsports-2014-306596rep

    DO - 10.1136/bjsports-2014-306596rep

    M3 - Article

    VL - 50

    SP - 93

    EP - 99

    JO - British Journal of Sports Medicine

    JF - British Journal of Sports Medicine

    SN - 0306-3674

    IS - 2

    ER -