Benign rabbit caliciviruses exhibit evolutionary dynamics similar to those of their virulent relatives

J Mahar, Leila Nicholson, J Eden, Sebastián Duchêne, Peter Kerr, Janine Duckworth, Vernon Ward, Edward C.Holmes, Tanja Strive

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Two closely related caliciviruses cocirculate in Australia: rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and rabbit calicivirus Australia 1 (RCV-A1). RCV-A1 causes benign enteric infections in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Australia and New Zealand, while its close relative RHDV causes a highly pathogenic infection of the liver in the same host. The comparison of these viruses provides important information on the nature and trajectory of virulence evolution, particularly as highly virulent strains of RHDV may have evolved from nonpathogenic ancestors such as RCV-A1. To determine the evolution of RCV-A1 we sequenced the full-length genomes of 44 RCV-A1 samples isolated from healthy rabbits and compared key evolutionary parameters to those of its virulent relative, RHDV. Despite their marked differences in pathogenicity and tissue tropism, RCV-A1 and RHDV have evolved in a very similar manner. Both viruses have evolved at broadly similar rates, suggesting that their dynamics are largely shaped by high background mutation rates, and both exhibit occasional recombination and an evolutionary environment dominated by purifying selection. In addition, our comparative analysis revealed that there have been multiple changes in both virulence and tissue tropism in the evolutionary history of these and related viruses. Finally, these new genomic data suggest that either RCV-A1 was introduced into Australia after the introduction of myxoma virus as a biocontrol agent in 1950 or there was drastic reduction of the rabbit population, and hence of RCV-A1 genetic diversity, perhaps coincident with the emergence of myxoma virus.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9317-9329
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume90
Issue number20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016

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Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus
Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus
Rabbits
Myxoma virus
Virulence
tissue tropism
Tropism
rabbits
Viruses
viruses
virulence
Caliciviridae
Oryctolagus cuniculus
Mutation Rate
Infection
New Zealand
Genetic Recombination
infection

Cite this

Mahar, J., Nicholson, L., Eden, J., Duchêne, S., Kerr, P., Duckworth, J., ... Strive, T. (2016). Benign rabbit caliciviruses exhibit evolutionary dynamics similar to those of their virulent relatives. Journal of Virology, 90(20), 9317-9329. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01212-16
Mahar, J ; Nicholson, Leila ; Eden, J ; Duchêne, Sebastián ; Kerr, Peter ; Duckworth, Janine ; Ward, Vernon ; C.Holmes, Edward ; Strive, Tanja. / Benign rabbit caliciviruses exhibit evolutionary dynamics similar to those of their virulent relatives. In: Journal of Virology. 2016 ; Vol. 90, No. 20. pp. 9317-9329.
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abstract = "Two closely related caliciviruses cocirculate in Australia: rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and rabbit calicivirus Australia 1 (RCV-A1). RCV-A1 causes benign enteric infections in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Australia and New Zealand, while its close relative RHDV causes a highly pathogenic infection of the liver in the same host. The comparison of these viruses provides important information on the nature and trajectory of virulence evolution, particularly as highly virulent strains of RHDV may have evolved from nonpathogenic ancestors such as RCV-A1. To determine the evolution of RCV-A1 we sequenced the full-length genomes of 44 RCV-A1 samples isolated from healthy rabbits and compared key evolutionary parameters to those of its virulent relative, RHDV. Despite their marked differences in pathogenicity and tissue tropism, RCV-A1 and RHDV have evolved in a very similar manner. Both viruses have evolved at broadly similar rates, suggesting that their dynamics are largely shaped by high background mutation rates, and both exhibit occasional recombination and an evolutionary environment dominated by purifying selection. In addition, our comparative analysis revealed that there have been multiple changes in both virulence and tissue tropism in the evolutionary history of these and related viruses. Finally, these new genomic data suggest that either RCV-A1 was introduced into Australia after the introduction of myxoma virus as a biocontrol agent in 1950 or there was drastic reduction of the rabbit population, and hence of RCV-A1 genetic diversity, perhaps coincident with the emergence of myxoma virus.",
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Mahar, J, Nicholson, L, Eden, J, Duchêne, S, Kerr, P, Duckworth, J, Ward, V, C.Holmes, E & Strive, T 2016, 'Benign rabbit caliciviruses exhibit evolutionary dynamics similar to those of their virulent relatives', Journal of Virology, vol. 90, no. 20, pp. 9317-9329. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01212-16

Benign rabbit caliciviruses exhibit evolutionary dynamics similar to those of their virulent relatives. / Mahar, J; Nicholson, Leila; Eden, J; Duchêne, Sebastián; Kerr, Peter; Duckworth, Janine; Ward, Vernon; C.Holmes, Edward; Strive, Tanja.

In: Journal of Virology, Vol. 90, No. 20, 10.2016, p. 9317-9329.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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