Beyond linearity, stability, and equilibrium: The edm package for empirical dynamic modeling and convergent cross-mapping in Stata

Jinjing Li, Michael Zyphur, George Sugihara, Patrick Laub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

How can social and health researchers study complex dynamic systems that function in nonlinear and even chaotic ways? Common methods, such as experiments and equation-based models, may be ill-suited to this task. To address the limitations of existing methods and offer nonparametric tools for characterizing and testing causality in nonlinear dynamic systems, we introduce the edm command in Stata. This command implements three key empirical dynamic modeling (EDM) methods for time series and panel data: 1) simplex projection, which characterizes the dimensionality of a system and the degree to which it appears to function deterministically; 2) S-maps, which quantify the degree of nonlinearity in a system; and 3) convergent cross-mapping, which offers a nonparametric approach to modeling causal effects. We illustrate these methods using simulated data on daily Chicago temperature and crime, showing an effect of temperature on crime but not the reverse. We conclude by discussing how EDM allows checking the assumptions of traditional model-based methods, such as residual autocorrelation tests, and we advocate for EDM because it does not assume linearity, stability, or equilibrium.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)220-258
Number of pages39
JournalThe Stata Journal
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021

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