Bhutanese teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education

Rinchen Dorji, Jeff Bailey, David Paterson, Lorraine Graham, Judith Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Inclusive education is a relatively new educational concept in Bhutan. Teachers play a critical role in the successful implementation of educational change. Investigating teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion was conducted through an online survey. Respondents included 145 teachers (70 male and 75 female) from eight schools from across eight different districts in Bhutan, representing a return rate of 57%. Data were analysed using Rasch latent trait scaling techniques (Proquest) to determine the face validity of the survey. Case estimates from Rasch were incorporated into further analysis adopting the R statistical environment. Significant differences of attitude were detected based on gender (Pr(Chi) = 0.031); teacher qualifications (Pr(Chi) = 0.005); and experience of teaching children with special education needs (SEN) (Pr(Chi) = 0.018). The slightly positive attitude towards inclusion, measured by a 38-item questionnaire on a six-point scale, showed a mean average score of 3.965. Teachers’ satisfaction of teaching children with SEN was positive (73%). The study also revealed the need for safer playgrounds, accessible toilets, less crowded classrooms, and greater education for teachers and support staff. These findings inform future policies and advancement of inclusive education in Bhutanese schools.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)545-564
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Inclusive Education
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021


Dive into the research topics of 'Bhutanese teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this