Biogeographical regions and phytogeography of the eucalypts

Carlos GONZALEZ-OROZCO, Andrew Thornhill, Nunzio Knerr, Shawn Laffan, Joseph Miller

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    Abstract

    Aim To map spatial patterns of species richness, species endemism and species turnover of the eucalypts; to propose a biogeographical regionalization of eucalypts based on species turnover; and to identify the environmental correlates of these patterns. Location Australia and Malesia. Methods We analysed 798 eucalypt species (Angophora, Corymbia and Eucalyptus) with distributions across Australia and Malesia using square cells with a resolution of 100 9 100 km. Species richness, endemism and species turnover were calculated. Phytogeographical regions were identified using an agglomerative cluster analysis derived from a matrix of pairwise Simpson’s beta (bsim) dissimilarity values. Eleven environmental variables were used to analyse the environmental correlates of species turnover. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the bsim, Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics and an ordination of the bsim -NMDS were used to investigate the environmental drivers at the continental level and for each of the phytogeographical regions. Results We identified three centres of species richness and fourteen of endemism, of which several are newly identified. The main centres of species richness agree with previous studies. Six major eucalypt phytogeographical regions are proposed based on the species turnover: monsoon, tropical/subtropical, south-east, south-west, Eremaean north and Eremaean south. These findings are supported by significant environmental differences of the NMDS vectors and the Gi* statistics. The environmental drivers of species turnover are broadly consistent with the continental patterns of summer and winter rainfall below and above the Tropic of Capricorn. Main conclusions The proposed phytogeographical regions are similar to the Australian biomes. Climate is the main driver of the phytogeographical regions, varying from region to region. Comprehensive bioregionalization frameworks and phytogeography updates, as proposed here, are fundamental for enhancing our understanding of the spatial distribution of biodiversity and therefore benefit global biogeography and help planners to identify regions of high conservation relevance.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)46-58
    Number of pages13
    JournalDiversity and Distributions
    Volume20
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014

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    phytogeography
    biogeographical region
    phytogeographical region
    species diversity
    turnover
    indigenous species
    endemism
    Angophora
    statistics
    species richness
    Corymbia
    Eucalyptus
    tropics
    cluster analysis
    biogeography
    spatial distribution
    biodiversity
    climate
    rain
    environmental factors

    Cite this

    GONZALEZ-OROZCO, C., Thornhill, A., Knerr, N., Laffan, S., & Miller, J. (2014). Biogeographical regions and phytogeography of the eucalypts. Diversity and Distributions, 20(1), 46-58. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12129
    GONZALEZ-OROZCO, Carlos ; Thornhill, Andrew ; Knerr, Nunzio ; Laffan, Shawn ; Miller, Joseph. / Biogeographical regions and phytogeography of the eucalypts. In: Diversity and Distributions. 2014 ; Vol. 20, No. 1. pp. 46-58.
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    abstract = "Aim To map spatial patterns of species richness, species endemism and species turnover of the eucalypts; to propose a biogeographical regionalization of eucalypts based on species turnover; and to identify the environmental correlates of these patterns. Location Australia and Malesia. Methods We analysed 798 eucalypt species (Angophora, Corymbia and Eucalyptus) with distributions across Australia and Malesia using square cells with a resolution of 100 9 100 km. Species richness, endemism and species turnover were calculated. Phytogeographical regions were identified using an agglomerative cluster analysis derived from a matrix of pairwise Simpson’s beta (bsim) dissimilarity values. Eleven environmental variables were used to analyse the environmental correlates of species turnover. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the bsim, Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics and an ordination of the bsim -NMDS were used to investigate the environmental drivers at the continental level and for each of the phytogeographical regions. Results We identified three centres of species richness and fourteen of endemism, of which several are newly identified. The main centres of species richness agree with previous studies. Six major eucalypt phytogeographical regions are proposed based on the species turnover: monsoon, tropical/subtropical, south-east, south-west, Eremaean north and Eremaean south. These findings are supported by significant environmental differences of the NMDS vectors and the Gi* statistics. The environmental drivers of species turnover are broadly consistent with the continental patterns of summer and winter rainfall below and above the Tropic of Capricorn. Main conclusions The proposed phytogeographical regions are similar to the Australian biomes. Climate is the main driver of the phytogeographical regions, varying from region to region. Comprehensive bioregionalization frameworks and phytogeography updates, as proposed here, are fundamental for enhancing our understanding of the spatial distribution of biodiversity and therefore benefit global biogeography and help planners to identify regions of high conservation relevance.",
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    GONZALEZ-OROZCO, C, Thornhill, A, Knerr, N, Laffan, S & Miller, J 2014, 'Biogeographical regions and phytogeography of the eucalypts', Diversity and Distributions, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 46-58. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12129

    Biogeographical regions and phytogeography of the eucalypts. / GONZALEZ-OROZCO, Carlos; Thornhill, Andrew; Knerr, Nunzio; Laffan, Shawn; Miller, Joseph.

    In: Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2014, p. 46-58.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Biogeographical regions and phytogeography of the eucalypts

    AU - GONZALEZ-OROZCO, Carlos

    AU - Thornhill, Andrew

    AU - Knerr, Nunzio

    AU - Laffan, Shawn

    AU - Miller, Joseph

    PY - 2014

    Y1 - 2014

    N2 - Aim To map spatial patterns of species richness, species endemism and species turnover of the eucalypts; to propose a biogeographical regionalization of eucalypts based on species turnover; and to identify the environmental correlates of these patterns. Location Australia and Malesia. Methods We analysed 798 eucalypt species (Angophora, Corymbia and Eucalyptus) with distributions across Australia and Malesia using square cells with a resolution of 100 9 100 km. Species richness, endemism and species turnover were calculated. Phytogeographical regions were identified using an agglomerative cluster analysis derived from a matrix of pairwise Simpson’s beta (bsim) dissimilarity values. Eleven environmental variables were used to analyse the environmental correlates of species turnover. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the bsim, Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics and an ordination of the bsim -NMDS were used to investigate the environmental drivers at the continental level and for each of the phytogeographical regions. Results We identified three centres of species richness and fourteen of endemism, of which several are newly identified. The main centres of species richness agree with previous studies. Six major eucalypt phytogeographical regions are proposed based on the species turnover: monsoon, tropical/subtropical, south-east, south-west, Eremaean north and Eremaean south. These findings are supported by significant environmental differences of the NMDS vectors and the Gi* statistics. The environmental drivers of species turnover are broadly consistent with the continental patterns of summer and winter rainfall below and above the Tropic of Capricorn. Main conclusions The proposed phytogeographical regions are similar to the Australian biomes. Climate is the main driver of the phytogeographical regions, varying from region to region. Comprehensive bioregionalization frameworks and phytogeography updates, as proposed here, are fundamental for enhancing our understanding of the spatial distribution of biodiversity and therefore benefit global biogeography and help planners to identify regions of high conservation relevance.

    AB - Aim To map spatial patterns of species richness, species endemism and species turnover of the eucalypts; to propose a biogeographical regionalization of eucalypts based on species turnover; and to identify the environmental correlates of these patterns. Location Australia and Malesia. Methods We analysed 798 eucalypt species (Angophora, Corymbia and Eucalyptus) with distributions across Australia and Malesia using square cells with a resolution of 100 9 100 km. Species richness, endemism and species turnover were calculated. Phytogeographical regions were identified using an agglomerative cluster analysis derived from a matrix of pairwise Simpson’s beta (bsim) dissimilarity values. Eleven environmental variables were used to analyse the environmental correlates of species turnover. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the bsim, Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics and an ordination of the bsim -NMDS were used to investigate the environmental drivers at the continental level and for each of the phytogeographical regions. Results We identified three centres of species richness and fourteen of endemism, of which several are newly identified. The main centres of species richness agree with previous studies. Six major eucalypt phytogeographical regions are proposed based on the species turnover: monsoon, tropical/subtropical, south-east, south-west, Eremaean north and Eremaean south. These findings are supported by significant environmental differences of the NMDS vectors and the Gi* statistics. The environmental drivers of species turnover are broadly consistent with the continental patterns of summer and winter rainfall below and above the Tropic of Capricorn. Main conclusions The proposed phytogeographical regions are similar to the Australian biomes. Climate is the main driver of the phytogeographical regions, varying from region to region. Comprehensive bioregionalization frameworks and phytogeography updates, as proposed here, are fundamental for enhancing our understanding of the spatial distribution of biodiversity and therefore benefit global biogeography and help planners to identify regions of high conservation relevance.

    KW - Australia

    KW - biomes

    KW - endemism

    KW - environmental drivers

    KW - eucalypts

    KW - NMDS

    KW - regionalization

    KW - species richness

    KW - species turnover bsim.

    U2 - 10.1111/ddi.12129

    DO - 10.1111/ddi.12129

    M3 - Article

    VL - 20

    SP - 46

    EP - 58

    JO - Diversity and Distributions

    JF - Diversity and Distributions

    SN - 1366-9516

    IS - 1

    ER -

    GONZALEZ-OROZCO C, Thornhill A, Knerr N, Laffan S, Miller J. Biogeographical regions and phytogeography of the eucalypts. Diversity and Distributions. 2014;20(1):46-58. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12129