Biogeography of the genus Craterocephalus (Teleostei: Atherinidae) in Australia

Peter Unmack, Thomas Dowling

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    41 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The genus Craterocephalus is one of the 11 genera within the family Atherinidae. It is the only genus in the family that has undergone an extensive radiation within freshwater habitats. Five species groups are represented within the genus, with 18 species found in Australia, six in New Guinea and one in East Timor. Craterocephalus is the equal fourth most widespread genus in Australian freshwater environments (occurring in 21 out of 31 biogeographic regions), and the most speciose (13 species). This allows identification of broad biogeographic patterns that can later be contrasted with other groups that overlap geographically. Phylogenetic relationships of Craterocephalus were examined using the cytochrome b gene. Results confirmed the monophyly of five species groups, with the marine ‘‘new honoriae” group being basal, suggesting a single invasion of freshwater habitats. The ‘‘capreoli” group and one species, C. munroi represents reversals back into marine/estuarine conditions. The most striking result from this study is the degree of differentiation between species in the separate freshwater groups within Craterocephalus. Despite often occurring sympatrically in river systems, interspecies and population divergences from ‘‘eyresii” and ‘‘stramineus” groups were substantially larger than divergences within ‘‘stercusmuscarum.” Despite being one of the best freshwater groups characterized morphologically within Australia, it is clear that additional morphological work is required to clarify taxonomic problems within Craterocephalus, as molecular data suggest some species are synonymous, while others appear to represent multiple unrecognized taxa.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)968-984
    Number of pages17
    JournalMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
    Volume55
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

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    Atherinidae
    Fresh Water
    biogeography
    Ecosystem
    East Timor
    Capreolus
    New Guinea
    Cytochromes b
    divergence
    habitats
    cytochrome b
    Rivers
    monophyly
    freshwater environment
    habitat
    Craterocephalus
    Radiation
    river system
    cytochrome
    rivers

    Cite this

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    abstract = "The genus Craterocephalus is one of the 11 genera within the family Atherinidae. It is the only genus in the family that has undergone an extensive radiation within freshwater habitats. Five species groups are represented within the genus, with 18 species found in Australia, six in New Guinea and one in East Timor. Craterocephalus is the equal fourth most widespread genus in Australian freshwater environments (occurring in 21 out of 31 biogeographic regions), and the most speciose (13 species). This allows identification of broad biogeographic patterns that can later be contrasted with other groups that overlap geographically. Phylogenetic relationships of Craterocephalus were examined using the cytochrome b gene. Results confirmed the monophyly of five species groups, with the marine ‘‘new honoriae” group being basal, suggesting a single invasion of freshwater habitats. The ‘‘capreoli” group and one species, C. munroi represents reversals back into marine/estuarine conditions. The most striking result from this study is the degree of differentiation between species in the separate freshwater groups within Craterocephalus. Despite often occurring sympatrically in river systems, interspecies and population divergences from ‘‘eyresii” and ‘‘stramineus” groups were substantially larger than divergences within ‘‘stercusmuscarum.” Despite being one of the best freshwater groups characterized morphologically within Australia, it is clear that additional morphological work is required to clarify taxonomic problems within Craterocephalus, as molecular data suggest some species are synonymous, while others appear to represent multiple unrecognized taxa.",
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    Biogeography of the genus Craterocephalus (Teleostei: Atherinidae) in Australia. / Unmack, Peter; Dowling, Thomas.

    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol. 55, 2010, p. 968-984.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AB - The genus Craterocephalus is one of the 11 genera within the family Atherinidae. It is the only genus in the family that has undergone an extensive radiation within freshwater habitats. Five species groups are represented within the genus, with 18 species found in Australia, six in New Guinea and one in East Timor. Craterocephalus is the equal fourth most widespread genus in Australian freshwater environments (occurring in 21 out of 31 biogeographic regions), and the most speciose (13 species). This allows identification of broad biogeographic patterns that can later be contrasted with other groups that overlap geographically. Phylogenetic relationships of Craterocephalus were examined using the cytochrome b gene. Results confirmed the monophyly of five species groups, with the marine ‘‘new honoriae” group being basal, suggesting a single invasion of freshwater habitats. The ‘‘capreoli” group and one species, C. munroi represents reversals back into marine/estuarine conditions. The most striking result from this study is the degree of differentiation between species in the separate freshwater groups within Craterocephalus. Despite often occurring sympatrically in river systems, interspecies and population divergences from ‘‘eyresii” and ‘‘stramineus” groups were substantially larger than divergences within ‘‘stercusmuscarum.” Despite being one of the best freshwater groups characterized morphologically within Australia, it is clear that additional morphological work is required to clarify taxonomic problems within Craterocephalus, as molecular data suggest some species are synonymous, while others appear to represent multiple unrecognized taxa.

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