Post-stroke paralysis, whereby subjects loose voluntary control over muscle actuation, is one of the main causes of disability. Repetitive physical therapy can reinstate lost motions and strengths through neuroplasticity. However, manually delivered therapies are becoming ineffective due to scarcity of therapists, subjectivity in the treatment, and lack of patient motivation. Robot-assisted physical therapy is being researched these days to impart an evidence-based systematic treatment. Recently, intelligent controllers and brain–computer interface are proposed for rehabilitation robots to encourage patient participation which is the key to quick recovery. In the present work, a brain–computer interface and assist-as-needed training paradigm have been proposed for an upper limb rehabilitation robot. The brain–computer interface system is implemented with the use of electroencephalography sensor; moreover, backdrivability in the actuator has been achieved with the use of assist-as-needed control approach, which allows subjects to move the robot actively using their limited motions and strengths. The robot only assists for the remaining course of trajectory which subjects are unable to perform themselves. The robot intervention point is obtained from the patient’s intent which is captured through brain–computer interface. Problems encountered during the practical implementation of brain–computer interface and achievement of backdrivability in the actuator have been discussed and resolved.