Brave new green world - consequences of a carbon economy for the conservation of Australian biodiversity

Corey J A Bradshaw, David M.J.S. Bowman, Nick Bond, Brett P. Murphy, Andrew D. Moore, Damien A. Fordham, Richard Thackway, Michael J. Lawes, Hamish McCallum, Stephen D. Gregory, Ram C. Dalal, Matthias M. Boer, Jasmyn LYNCH, Ross A. Bradstock, Barry Brook, Beverley K. Henry, Leigh P. Hunt, Diana O. Fisher, David Hunter, Christopher N. Johnson & 10 others David A. Keith, Edward C. Lefroy, Trent D. Penmanm, Wayne S. Meyer, Jim THOMSON, Craig M. Thornton, Jeremy VanDerWal, Richard J. Williams, Lucy Keniger, Alison Specht

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    46 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Pricing greenhouse gas emissions is a burgeoning and possibly lucrative financial means for climate change mitigation. Emissions pricing is being used to fund emissions-abatement technologies and to modify land management to improve carbon sequestration and retention. Here we discuss the principal land-management options under existing and realistic future emissions-price legislation in Australia, and examine them with respect to their anticipated direct and indirect effects on biodiversity. The main ways in which emissions price-driven changes to land management can affect biodiversity are through policies and practices for (1) environmental plantings for carbon sequestration, (2) native regrowth, (3) fire management, (4) forestry, (5) agricultural practices (including cropping and grazing), and (6) feral animal control. While most land-management options available to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions offer clear advantages to increase the viability of native biodiversity, we describe several caveats regarding potentially negative outcomes, and outline components that need to be considered if biodiversity is also to benefit from the new carbon economy. Carbon plantings will only have real biodiversity value if they comprise appropriate native tree species and provide suitable habitats and resources for valued fauna. Such plantings also risk severely altering local hydrology and reducing water availability. Management of regrowth post-agricultural abandonment requires setting appropriate baselines and allowing for thinning in certain circumstances, and improvements to forestry rotation lengths would likely increase carbon-retention capacity and biodiversity value. Prescribed burning to reduce the frequency of highintensity wildfires in northern Australia is being used as a tool to increase carbon retention. Fire management in southern Australia is not readily amenable for maximising carbon storage potential, but will become increasingly important for biodiversity conservation as the climate warms. Carbon price-based modifications to agriculture that would benefit biodiversity include reductions in tillage frequency and livestock densities, reductions in fertiliser use, and retention and regeneration of native shrubs; however, anticipated shifts to exotic perennial grass species such as buffel grass and kikuyu could have net negative implications for native biodiversity. Finally, it is unlikely that major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions arising from feral animal control are possible, even though reduced densities of feral herbivores will benefit Australian biodiversity greatly.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)71-90
    Number of pages20
    JournalBiological Conservation
    Volume161
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

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    biodiversity
    carbon
    land management
    greenhouse gas emissions
    feral animals
    carbon sequestration
    greenhouse gas
    fire management
    planting
    regrowth
    fertilizer use reduction
    forestry
    economy
    world
    grass
    Cenchrus ciliaris
    carbon markets
    prescribed burning
    animal
    wildfires

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    Bradshaw, C. J. A., Bowman, D. M. J. S., Bond, N., Murphy, B. P., Moore, A. D., Fordham, D. A., ... Specht, A. (2013). Brave new green world - consequences of a carbon economy for the conservation of Australian biodiversity. Biological Conservation, 161, 71-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.02.012
    Bradshaw, Corey J A ; Bowman, David M.J.S. ; Bond, Nick ; Murphy, Brett P. ; Moore, Andrew D. ; Fordham, Damien A. ; Thackway, Richard ; Lawes, Michael J. ; McCallum, Hamish ; Gregory, Stephen D. ; Dalal, Ram C. ; Boer, Matthias M. ; LYNCH, Jasmyn ; Bradstock, Ross A. ; Brook, Barry ; Henry, Beverley K. ; Hunt, Leigh P. ; Fisher, Diana O. ; Hunter, David ; Johnson, Christopher N. ; Keith, David A. ; Lefroy, Edward C. ; Penmanm, Trent D. ; Meyer, Wayne S. ; THOMSON, Jim ; Thornton, Craig M. ; VanDerWal, Jeremy ; Williams, Richard J. ; Keniger, Lucy ; Specht, Alison. / Brave new green world - consequences of a carbon economy for the conservation of Australian biodiversity. In: Biological Conservation. 2013 ; Vol. 161. pp. 71-90.
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    title = "Brave new green world - consequences of a carbon economy for the conservation of Australian biodiversity",
    abstract = "Pricing greenhouse gas emissions is a burgeoning and possibly lucrative financial means for climate change mitigation. Emissions pricing is being used to fund emissions-abatement technologies and to modify land management to improve carbon sequestration and retention. Here we discuss the principal land-management options under existing and realistic future emissions-price legislation in Australia, and examine them with respect to their anticipated direct and indirect effects on biodiversity. The main ways in which emissions price-driven changes to land management can affect biodiversity are through policies and practices for (1) environmental plantings for carbon sequestration, (2) native regrowth, (3) fire management, (4) forestry, (5) agricultural practices (including cropping and grazing), and (6) feral animal control. While most land-management options available to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions offer clear advantages to increase the viability of native biodiversity, we describe several caveats regarding potentially negative outcomes, and outline components that need to be considered if biodiversity is also to benefit from the new carbon economy. Carbon plantings will only have real biodiversity value if they comprise appropriate native tree species and provide suitable habitats and resources for valued fauna. Such plantings also risk severely altering local hydrology and reducing water availability. Management of regrowth post-agricultural abandonment requires setting appropriate baselines and allowing for thinning in certain circumstances, and improvements to forestry rotation lengths would likely increase carbon-retention capacity and biodiversity value. Prescribed burning to reduce the frequency of highintensity wildfires in northern Australia is being used as a tool to increase carbon retention. Fire management in southern Australia is not readily amenable for maximising carbon storage potential, but will become increasingly important for biodiversity conservation as the climate warms. Carbon price-based modifications to agriculture that would benefit biodiversity include reductions in tillage frequency and livestock densities, reductions in fertiliser use, and retention and regeneration of native shrubs; however, anticipated shifts to exotic perennial grass species such as buffel grass and kikuyu could have net negative implications for native biodiversity. Finally, it is unlikely that major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions arising from feral animal control are possible, even though reduced densities of feral herbivores will benefit Australian biodiversity greatly.",
    keywords = "Agriculture, Carbon sequestration, Carbon price, Carbon tax, Cropping, Emissions, Feral animals, Fire, Forestry, Greenhouse gases, Invasive species, Livestock, Plantings, Regrowth, Stocking.",
    author = "Bradshaw, {Corey J A} and Bowman, {David M.J.S.} and Nick Bond and Murphy, {Brett P.} and Moore, {Andrew D.} and Fordham, {Damien A.} and Richard Thackway and Lawes, {Michael J.} and Hamish McCallum and Gregory, {Stephen D.} and Dalal, {Ram C.} and Boer, {Matthias M.} and Jasmyn LYNCH and Bradstock, {Ross A.} and Barry Brook and Henry, {Beverley K.} and Hunt, {Leigh P.} and Fisher, {Diana O.} and David Hunter and Johnson, {Christopher N.} and Keith, {David A.} and Lefroy, {Edward C.} and Penmanm, {Trent D.} and Meyer, {Wayne S.} and Jim THOMSON and Thornton, {Craig M.} and Jeremy VanDerWal and Williams, {Richard J.} and Lucy Keniger and Alison Specht",
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    Bradshaw, CJA, Bowman, DMJS, Bond, N, Murphy, BP, Moore, AD, Fordham, DA, Thackway, R, Lawes, MJ, McCallum, H, Gregory, SD, Dalal, RC, Boer, MM, LYNCH, J, Bradstock, RA, Brook, B, Henry, BK, Hunt, LP, Fisher, DO, Hunter, D, Johnson, CN, Keith, DA, Lefroy, EC, Penmanm, TD, Meyer, WS, THOMSON, J, Thornton, CM, VanDerWal, J, Williams, RJ, Keniger, L & Specht, A 2013, 'Brave new green world - consequences of a carbon economy for the conservation of Australian biodiversity', Biological Conservation, vol. 161, pp. 71-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.02.012

    Brave new green world - consequences of a carbon economy for the conservation of Australian biodiversity. / Bradshaw, Corey J A; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Bond, Nick; Murphy, Brett P.; Moore, Andrew D.; Fordham, Damien A.; Thackway, Richard; Lawes, Michael J.; McCallum, Hamish; Gregory, Stephen D.; Dalal, Ram C.; Boer, Matthias M.; LYNCH, Jasmyn; Bradstock, Ross A.; Brook, Barry; Henry, Beverley K.; Hunt, Leigh P.; Fisher, Diana O.; Hunter, David; Johnson, Christopher N.; Keith, David A.; Lefroy, Edward C.; Penmanm, Trent D.; Meyer, Wayne S.; THOMSON, Jim; Thornton, Craig M.; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Williams, Richard J.; Keniger, Lucy; Specht, Alison.

    In: Biological Conservation, Vol. 161, 2013, p. 71-90.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Brave new green world - consequences of a carbon economy for the conservation of Australian biodiversity

    AU - Bradshaw, Corey J A

    AU - Bowman, David M.J.S.

    AU - Bond, Nick

    AU - Murphy, Brett P.

    AU - Moore, Andrew D.

    AU - Fordham, Damien A.

    AU - Thackway, Richard

    AU - Lawes, Michael J.

    AU - McCallum, Hamish

    AU - Gregory, Stephen D.

    AU - Dalal, Ram C.

    AU - Boer, Matthias M.

    AU - LYNCH, Jasmyn

    AU - Bradstock, Ross A.

    AU - Brook, Barry

    AU - Henry, Beverley K.

    AU - Hunt, Leigh P.

    AU - Fisher, Diana O.

    AU - Hunter, David

    AU - Johnson, Christopher N.

    AU - Keith, David A.

    AU - Lefroy, Edward C.

    AU - Penmanm, Trent D.

    AU - Meyer, Wayne S.

    AU - THOMSON, Jim

    AU - Thornton, Craig M.

    AU - VanDerWal, Jeremy

    AU - Williams, Richard J.

    AU - Keniger, Lucy

    AU - Specht, Alison

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - Pricing greenhouse gas emissions is a burgeoning and possibly lucrative financial means for climate change mitigation. Emissions pricing is being used to fund emissions-abatement technologies and to modify land management to improve carbon sequestration and retention. Here we discuss the principal land-management options under existing and realistic future emissions-price legislation in Australia, and examine them with respect to their anticipated direct and indirect effects on biodiversity. The main ways in which emissions price-driven changes to land management can affect biodiversity are through policies and practices for (1) environmental plantings for carbon sequestration, (2) native regrowth, (3) fire management, (4) forestry, (5) agricultural practices (including cropping and grazing), and (6) feral animal control. While most land-management options available to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions offer clear advantages to increase the viability of native biodiversity, we describe several caveats regarding potentially negative outcomes, and outline components that need to be considered if biodiversity is also to benefit from the new carbon economy. Carbon plantings will only have real biodiversity value if they comprise appropriate native tree species and provide suitable habitats and resources for valued fauna. Such plantings also risk severely altering local hydrology and reducing water availability. Management of regrowth post-agricultural abandonment requires setting appropriate baselines and allowing for thinning in certain circumstances, and improvements to forestry rotation lengths would likely increase carbon-retention capacity and biodiversity value. Prescribed burning to reduce the frequency of highintensity wildfires in northern Australia is being used as a tool to increase carbon retention. Fire management in southern Australia is not readily amenable for maximising carbon storage potential, but will become increasingly important for biodiversity conservation as the climate warms. Carbon price-based modifications to agriculture that would benefit biodiversity include reductions in tillage frequency and livestock densities, reductions in fertiliser use, and retention and regeneration of native shrubs; however, anticipated shifts to exotic perennial grass species such as buffel grass and kikuyu could have net negative implications for native biodiversity. Finally, it is unlikely that major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions arising from feral animal control are possible, even though reduced densities of feral herbivores will benefit Australian biodiversity greatly.

    AB - Pricing greenhouse gas emissions is a burgeoning and possibly lucrative financial means for climate change mitigation. Emissions pricing is being used to fund emissions-abatement technologies and to modify land management to improve carbon sequestration and retention. Here we discuss the principal land-management options under existing and realistic future emissions-price legislation in Australia, and examine them with respect to their anticipated direct and indirect effects on biodiversity. The main ways in which emissions price-driven changes to land management can affect biodiversity are through policies and practices for (1) environmental plantings for carbon sequestration, (2) native regrowth, (3) fire management, (4) forestry, (5) agricultural practices (including cropping and grazing), and (6) feral animal control. While most land-management options available to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions offer clear advantages to increase the viability of native biodiversity, we describe several caveats regarding potentially negative outcomes, and outline components that need to be considered if biodiversity is also to benefit from the new carbon economy. Carbon plantings will only have real biodiversity value if they comprise appropriate native tree species and provide suitable habitats and resources for valued fauna. Such plantings also risk severely altering local hydrology and reducing water availability. Management of regrowth post-agricultural abandonment requires setting appropriate baselines and allowing for thinning in certain circumstances, and improvements to forestry rotation lengths would likely increase carbon-retention capacity and biodiversity value. Prescribed burning to reduce the frequency of highintensity wildfires in northern Australia is being used as a tool to increase carbon retention. Fire management in southern Australia is not readily amenable for maximising carbon storage potential, but will become increasingly important for biodiversity conservation as the climate warms. Carbon price-based modifications to agriculture that would benefit biodiversity include reductions in tillage frequency and livestock densities, reductions in fertiliser use, and retention and regeneration of native shrubs; however, anticipated shifts to exotic perennial grass species such as buffel grass and kikuyu could have net negative implications for native biodiversity. Finally, it is unlikely that major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions arising from feral animal control are possible, even though reduced densities of feral herbivores will benefit Australian biodiversity greatly.

    KW - Agriculture

    KW - Carbon sequestration

    KW - Carbon price

    KW - Carbon tax

    KW - Cropping

    KW - Emissions

    KW - Feral animals

    KW - Fire

    KW - Forestry

    KW - Greenhouse gases

    KW - Invasive species

    KW - Livestock

    KW - Plantings

    KW - Regrowth

    KW - Stocking.

    U2 - 10.1016/j.biocon.2013.02.012

    DO - 10.1016/j.biocon.2013.02.012

    M3 - Article

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    SP - 71

    EP - 90

    JO - Biological Conservation

    JF - Biological Conservation

    SN - 0006-3207

    ER -