Bulk Anatomical Density Based Dose Calculation for Patient-Specific Quality Assurance of MRI-Only Prostate Radiotherapy

Jae Hyuk Choi, Danny Lee, Laura O'Connor, Stephan Chalup, James S. Welsh, Jason Dowling, Peter B. Greer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Prostate cancer treatment planning can be performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) only with sCT scans. However, sCT scans are computer generated from MRI data and therefore robust, efficient, and accurate patient-specific quality assurance methods for dosimetric verification are required. Bulk anatomical density (BAD) maps can be generated based on anatomical contours derived from the MRI image. This study investigates and optimizes the BAD map approach for sCT quality assurance with a large patient CT and MRI dataset. 3D T2-weighted MRI and full density CT images of 54 patients were used to create BAD maps with different tissue class combinations. Mean Hounsfield units (HU) of Fat (F: below −30 HU), the entire Tissue [T: excluding bone (B)], and Muscle (M: excluding bone and fat) were derived from the CT scans. CT based BAD maps (BADBT,CT and BADBMF,CT) and a conventional bone and water bulk-density method (BADBW,CT) were compared to full CT calculations with bone assignments to 366 HU (measured) and 288 HU (obtained from literature). Optimal bulk densities of Tissue for BADBT,CT and Bone for BADBMF,CT were derived to provide zero mean isocenter dose agreement to the CT plan. Using the optimal densities, the dose agreement of BADBT,CT and BADBMF,CT to CT was redetermined. These maps were then created for the MRI dataset using auto-generated contours and dose calculations compared to CT. The average mean density of Bone, Fat, Muscle, and Tissue were 365.5 ± 62.2, −109.5 ± 12.9, 23.3 ± 9.7, and −46.3 ± 15.2 HU, respectively. Comparing to other bulk-density maps, BADBMF,CT maps provided the closest dose to CT. Calculated optimal mean densities of Tissue and Bone were −32.7 and 323.7 HU, respectively. The isocenter dose agreement of the optimal density assigned BADBT,CT and BADBMF,CT to full density CT were 0.10 ± 0.65% and 0.01 ± 0.45%, respectively. The isocenter dose agreement of MRI generated BADBT,MR and BADBMF,MR to full density CT were −0.15 ± 0.90% and −0.16 ± 0.65%, respectively. The BAD method with optimal bulk densities can provide robust, accurate and efficient patient-specific quality assurance for dose calculations in MRI-only radiotherapy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number997
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2019
Externally publishedYes


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