Burden of diarrhea in the eastern mediterranean region, 1990-2013: Findings from the global burden of disease study 2013

Ibrahim Khalil, Danny Colombara, Mohammad Forouzanfar, Christopher Troeger, Farah Daoud, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Charbel El Bcheraoui, Puja Rao, Ashkan Afshin, Raghid Charara, Kalkidan Abate, Mohammed El Razek, Foad Abd-Allah, Remon Abu-Elyazeed, Aliasghar Kiadaliri, Ali Akanda, Nadia Akseer, Khurshid Alam, Deena Alasfoor, Raghib Ali & 109 others Mohammad Almazroa, Mahmoud Alomari, Rajaa Mohammad, Ubai Alsharif, Shirina Alsowaidi, Khalid Altirkawi, Nelson Álvis-Guzmán, Walid Ammar, Carl Antonio, Hamid Asayesh, Rana Asghar, Suleman Atique, Ashish Awasthi, Umar Bacha, Alaa Badawi, Aleksandra Barac, Neeraj Bedi, Tolesa Bekele, Balem Betsu, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Aref Abdulhak, Zahid Butt, Hadi Danawi, Manisha Dubey, Aman Endries, Imad Faghmous, Katherine Gibney, Ibrahim Ginawi, Melkamu Gishu, Harish Gugnani, Rahul Gupta, Gessessew Hailu, Randah Hamadeh, Samer Hamidi, Hilda Harb, Mohammad Hedayati, Mohamed Hsairi, Abdullatif Husseini, Nader Jahanmehr, Mehdi Javanbakht, Tariku Beyene, Jost Jonas, Amir Kasaian, Yousef Khader, Abdurrahman Khan, Ejazahmad Khan, Gulfaraz Khan, Tawfik Khoja, Yohannes KINFU, Niranjan Kissoon, Ai Koyanagi, Aparna Lal, Asma Abdul Abdul Latif, Raimundas Lunevicius, Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek, Azeem Majeed, Reza Malekzadeh, Alem Mehari, Alemayehu B. Mekonnen, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Ziad Memish, Walter Mendoza, Awoke Temesgen Misganaw, Layla Abdalla Ibrahim Mohamed, Jean B. Nachega, Quyen Le Nguyen, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Emmanuel Kwame Peprah, James A. Platts-Mills, Farshad Pourmalek, Mostafa Qorbani, Anwar Rafay, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Saleem M. Rana, Chhabi L Ranabhat, Sowmya R. Rao, Amany H. Refaat, Mark Riddle, Gholamreza Roshandel, George Mugambage Ruhago, Muhammad Muhammad Saleh, Juan R Sanabria, Monika Sawhney, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Tesfaye Setegn, Karen Sliwa, Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Bryan L. Sykes, Mohammad Tavakkoli, Bemnet Amare Tedla, Abdullah S Terkawi, Kingsley N Ukwaja, Olalekan A Uthman, Ronny Westerman, Mamo Wubshet, Muluken A. Yenesew, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mustafa Z. Younis, Zoubida Zaidi, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Abdullah A. Al Rabeeah, Haidong Wang, Mohsen Naghavi, Theo Vos, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Ali H Mokdad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0–1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245–763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520–989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540–65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1319-1329
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Volume95
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016

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Mediterranean Region
Diarrhea
Uncertainty
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Somalia
Bahrain
Syria
Growth Disorders
Oman
Sanitation
Global Burden of Disease
Water

Cite this

Khalil, Ibrahim ; Colombara, Danny ; Forouzanfar, Mohammad ; Troeger, Christopher ; Daoud, Farah ; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar ; El Bcheraoui, Charbel ; Rao, Puja ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Charara, Raghid ; Abate, Kalkidan ; El Razek, Mohammed ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar ; Akanda, Ali ; Akseer, Nadia ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Ali, Raghib ; Almazroa, Mohammad ; Alomari, Mahmoud ; Mohammad, Rajaa ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Alsowaidi, Shirina ; Altirkawi, Khalid ; Álvis-Guzmán, Nelson ; Ammar, Walid ; Antonio, Carl ; Asayesh, Hamid ; Asghar, Rana ; Atique, Suleman ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Bacha, Umar ; Badawi, Alaa ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Bekele, Tolesa ; Betsu, Balem ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar ; Abdulhak, Aref ; Butt, Zahid ; Danawi, Hadi ; Dubey, Manisha ; Endries, Aman ; Faghmous, Imad ; Gibney, Katherine ; Ginawi, Ibrahim ; Gishu, Melkamu ; Gugnani, Harish ; Gupta, Rahul ; Hailu, Gessessew ; Hamadeh, Randah ; Hamidi, Samer ; Harb, Hilda ; Hedayati, Mohammad ; Hsairi, Mohamed ; Husseini, Abdullatif ; Jahanmehr, Nader ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; Beyene, Tariku ; Jonas, Jost ; Kasaian, Amir ; Khader, Yousef ; Khan, Abdurrahman ; Khan, Ejazahmad ; Khan, Gulfaraz ; Khoja, Tawfik ; KINFU, Yohannes ; Kissoon, Niranjan ; Koyanagi, Ai ; Lal, Aparna ; Latif, Asma Abdul Abdul ; Lunevicius, Raimundas ; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan ; Majeed, Azeem ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Mehari, Alem ; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B. ; Melaku, Yohannes Adama ; Memish, Ziad ; Mendoza, Walter ; Misganaw, Awoke Temesgen ; Mohamed, Layla Abdalla Ibrahim ; Nachega, Jean B. ; Nguyen, Quyen Le ; Nisar, Muhammad Imran ; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame ; Platts-Mills, James A. ; Pourmalek, Farshad ; Qorbani, Mostafa ; Rafay, Anwar ; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa ; Rahman, Sajjad Ur ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Rana, Saleem M. ; Ranabhat, Chhabi L ; Rao, Sowmya R. ; Refaat, Amany H. ; Riddle, Mark ; Roshandel, Gholamreza ; Ruhago, George Mugambage ; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad ; Sanabria, Juan R ; Sawhney, Monika ; Sepanlou, Sadaf G ; Setegn, Tesfaye ; Sliwa, Karen ; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T. ; Sykes, Bryan L. ; Tavakkoli, Mohammad ; Tedla, Bemnet Amare ; Terkawi, Abdullah S ; Ukwaja, Kingsley N ; Uthman, Olalekan A ; Westerman, Ronny ; Wubshet, Mamo ; Yenesew, Muluken A. ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa Z. ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed ; Rabeeah, Abdullah A. Al ; Wang, Haidong ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Vos, Theo ; Lopez, Alan D ; Murray, Christopher J L ; Mokdad, Ali H. / Burden of diarrhea in the eastern mediterranean region, 1990-2013: Findings from the global burden of disease study 2013. In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2016 ; Vol. 95, No. 6. pp. 1319-1329.
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title = "Burden of diarrhea in the eastern mediterranean region, 1990-2013: Findings from the global burden of disease study 2013",
abstract = "Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6{\%} of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95{\%} uncertainty interval [UI] = 0–1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95{\%} UI = 245–763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95{\%} UI = 520–989) in Syria to 40,869 (95{\%} UI = 21,540–65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden",
keywords = "Child, Child, Preschool, Cost of Illness, Diarrhea/economics, Disabled Persons, Female, Global Burden of Disease, Humans, Male, Mediterranean Region/epidemiology, Quality-Adjusted Life Years, Risk Factors",
author = "Ibrahim Khalil and Danny Colombara and Mohammad Forouzanfar and Christopher Troeger and Farah Daoud and Maziar Moradi-Lakeh and {El Bcheraoui}, Charbel and Puja Rao and Ashkan Afshin and Raghid Charara and Kalkidan Abate and {El Razek}, Mohammed and Foad Abd-Allah and Remon Abu-Elyazeed and Aliasghar Kiadaliri and Ali Akanda and Nadia Akseer and Khurshid Alam and Deena Alasfoor and Raghib Ali and Mohammad Almazroa and Mahmoud Alomari and Rajaa Mohammad and Ubai Alsharif and Shirina Alsowaidi and Khalid Altirkawi and Nelson {\'A}lvis-Guzm{\'a}n and Walid Ammar and Carl Antonio and Hamid Asayesh and Rana Asghar and Suleman Atique and Ashish Awasthi and Umar Bacha and Alaa Badawi and Aleksandra Barac and Neeraj Bedi and Tolesa Bekele and Balem Betsu and Zulfiqar Bhutta and Aref Abdulhak and Zahid Butt and Hadi Danawi and Manisha Dubey and Aman Endries and Imad Faghmous and Katherine Gibney and Ibrahim Ginawi and Melkamu Gishu and Harish Gugnani and Rahul Gupta and Gessessew Hailu and Randah Hamadeh and Samer Hamidi and Hilda Harb and Mohammad Hedayati and Mohamed Hsairi and Abdullatif Husseini and Nader Jahanmehr and Mehdi Javanbakht and Tariku Beyene and Jost Jonas and Amir Kasaian and Yousef Khader and Abdurrahman Khan and Ejazahmad Khan and Gulfaraz Khan and Tawfik Khoja and Yohannes KINFU and Niranjan Kissoon and Ai Koyanagi and Aparna Lal and Latif, {Asma Abdul Abdul} and Raimundas Lunevicius and {Magdy Abd El Razek}, Hassan and Azeem Majeed and Reza Malekzadeh and Alem Mehari and Mekonnen, {Alemayehu B.} and Melaku, {Yohannes Adama} and Ziad Memish and Walter Mendoza and Misganaw, {Awoke Temesgen} and Mohamed, {Layla Abdalla Ibrahim} and Nachega, {Jean B.} and Nguyen, {Quyen Le} and Nisar, {Muhammad Imran} and Peprah, {Emmanuel Kwame} and Platts-Mills, {James A.} and Farshad Pourmalek and Mostafa Qorbani and Anwar Rafay and Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar and Rahman, {Sajjad Ur} and Rai, {Rajesh Kumar} and Rana, {Saleem M.} and Ranabhat, {Chhabi L} and Rao, {Sowmya R.} and Refaat, {Amany H.} and Mark Riddle and Gholamreza Roshandel and Ruhago, {George Mugambage} and Saleh, {Muhammad Muhammad} and Sanabria, {Juan R} and Monika Sawhney and Sepanlou, {Sadaf G} and Tesfaye Setegn and Karen Sliwa and Sreeramareddy, {Chandrashekhar T.} and Sykes, {Bryan L.} and Mohammad Tavakkoli and Tedla, {Bemnet Amare} and Terkawi, {Abdullah S} and Ukwaja, {Kingsley N} and Uthman, {Olalekan A} and Ronny Westerman and Mamo Wubshet and Yenesew, {Muluken A.} and Naohiro Yonemoto and Younis, {Mustafa Z.} and Zoubida Zaidi and Zaki, {Maysaa El Sayed} and Rabeeah, {Abdullah A. Al} and Haidong Wang and Mohsen Naghavi and Theo Vos and Lopez, {Alan D} and Murray, {Christopher J L} and Mokdad, {Ali H}",
year = "2016",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.4269/ajtmh.16-0339",
language = "English",
volume = "95",
pages = "1319--1329",
journal = "Journal. National Malaria Society",
issn = "0002-9637",
publisher = "American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene",
number = "6",

}

Khalil, I, Colombara, D, Forouzanfar, M, Troeger, C, Daoud, F, Moradi-Lakeh, M, El Bcheraoui, C, Rao, P, Afshin, A, Charara, R, Abate, K, El Razek, M, Abd-Allah, F, Abu-Elyazeed, R, Kiadaliri, A, Akanda, A, Akseer, N, Alam, K, Alasfoor, D, Ali, R, Almazroa, M, Alomari, M, Mohammad, R, Alsharif, U, Alsowaidi, S, Altirkawi, K, Álvis-Guzmán, N, Ammar, W, Antonio, C, Asayesh, H, Asghar, R, Atique, S, Awasthi, A, Bacha, U, Badawi, A, Barac, A, Bedi, N, Bekele, T, Betsu, B, Bhutta, Z, Abdulhak, A, Butt, Z, Danawi, H, Dubey, M, Endries, A, Faghmous, I, Gibney, K, Ginawi, I, Gishu, M, Gugnani, H, Gupta, R, Hailu, G, Hamadeh, R, Hamidi, S, Harb, H, Hedayati, M, Hsairi, M, Husseini, A, Jahanmehr, N, Javanbakht, M, Beyene, T, Jonas, J, Kasaian, A, Khader, Y, Khan, A, Khan, E, Khan, G, Khoja, T, KINFU, Y, Kissoon, N, Koyanagi, A, Lal, A, Latif, AAA, Lunevicius, R, Magdy Abd El Razek, H, Majeed, A, Malekzadeh, R, Mehari, A, Mekonnen, AB, Melaku, YA, Memish, Z, Mendoza, W, Misganaw, AT, Mohamed, LAI, Nachega, JB, Nguyen, QL, Nisar, MI, Peprah, EK, Platts-Mills, JA, Pourmalek, F, Qorbani, M, Rafay, A, Rahimi-Movaghar, V, Rahman, SU, Rai, RK, Rana, SM, Ranabhat, CL, Rao, SR, Refaat, AH, Riddle, M, Roshandel, G, Ruhago, GM, Saleh, MM, Sanabria, JR, Sawhney, M, Sepanlou, SG, Setegn, T, Sliwa, K, Sreeramareddy, CT, Sykes, BL, Tavakkoli, M, Tedla, BA, Terkawi, AS, Ukwaja, KN, Uthman, OA, Westerman, R, Wubshet, M, Yenesew, MA, Yonemoto, N, Younis, MZ, Zaidi, Z, Zaki, MES, Rabeeah, AAA, Wang, H, Naghavi, M, Vos, T, Lopez, AD, Murray, CJL & Mokdad, AH 2016, 'Burden of diarrhea in the eastern mediterranean region, 1990-2013: Findings from the global burden of disease study 2013', American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 1319-1329. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0339

Burden of diarrhea in the eastern mediterranean region, 1990-2013: Findings from the global burden of disease study 2013. / Khalil, Ibrahim; Colombara, Danny; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Troeger, Christopher; Daoud, Farah; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Rao, Puja; Afshin, Ashkan; Charara, Raghid; Abate, Kalkidan; El Razek, Mohammed; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar; Akanda, Ali; Akseer, Nadia; Alam, Khurshid; Alasfoor, Deena; Ali, Raghib; Almazroa, Mohammad; Alomari, Mahmoud; Mohammad, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Altirkawi, Khalid; Álvis-Guzmán, Nelson; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana; Atique, Suleman; Awasthi, Ashish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Betsu, Balem; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abdulhak, Aref; Butt, Zahid; Danawi, Hadi; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Aman; Faghmous, Imad; Gibney, Katherine; Ginawi, Ibrahim; Gishu, Melkamu; Gugnani, Harish; Gupta, Rahul; Hailu, Gessessew; Hamadeh, Randah; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda; Hedayati, Mohammad; Hsairi, Mohamed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Jahanmehr, Nader; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Beyene, Tariku; Jonas, Jost; Kasaian, Amir; Khader, Yousef; Khan, Abdurrahman; Khan, Ejazahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khoja, Tawfik; KINFU, Yohannes; Kissoon, Niranjan ; Koyanagi, Ai; Lal, Aparna; Latif, Asma Abdul Abdul ; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan ; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Mehari, Alem; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B. ; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad; Mendoza, Walter; Misganaw, Awoke Temesgen ; Mohamed, Layla Abdalla Ibrahim ; Nachega, Jean B.; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nisar, Muhammad Imran ; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame ; Platts-Mills, James A.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Rana, Saleem M. ; Ranabhat, Chhabi L; Rao, Sowmya R. ; Refaat, Amany H. ; Riddle, Mark ; Roshandel, Gholamreza ; Ruhago, George Mugambage ; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad ; Sanabria, Juan R; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Setegn, Tesfaye ; Sliwa, Karen; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T. ; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tavakkoli, Mohammad ; Tedla, Bemnet Amare ; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Uthman, Olalekan A; Westerman, Ronny; Wubshet, Mamo ; Yenesew, Muluken A. ; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z. ; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed ; Rabeeah, Abdullah A. Al ; Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L; Mokdad, Ali H.

In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 95, No. 6, 01.12.2016, p. 1319-1329.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Burden of diarrhea in the eastern mediterranean region, 1990-2013: Findings from the global burden of disease study 2013

AU - Khalil, Ibrahim

AU - Colombara, Danny

AU - Forouzanfar, Mohammad

AU - Troeger, Christopher

AU - Daoud, Farah

AU - Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

AU - El Bcheraoui, Charbel

AU - Rao, Puja

AU - Afshin, Ashkan

AU - Charara, Raghid

AU - Abate, Kalkidan

AU - El Razek, Mohammed

AU - Abd-Allah, Foad

AU - Abu-Elyazeed, Remon

AU - Kiadaliri, Aliasghar

AU - Akanda, Ali

AU - Akseer, Nadia

AU - Alam, Khurshid

AU - Alasfoor, Deena

AU - Ali, Raghib

AU - Almazroa, Mohammad

AU - Alomari, Mahmoud

AU - Mohammad, Rajaa

AU - Alsharif, Ubai

AU - Alsowaidi, Shirina

AU - Altirkawi, Khalid

AU - Álvis-Guzmán, Nelson

AU - Ammar, Walid

AU - Antonio, Carl

AU - Asayesh, Hamid

AU - Asghar, Rana

AU - Atique, Suleman

AU - Awasthi, Ashish

AU - Bacha, Umar

AU - Badawi, Alaa

AU - Barac, Aleksandra

AU - Bedi, Neeraj

AU - Bekele, Tolesa

AU - Betsu, Balem

AU - Bhutta, Zulfiqar

AU - Abdulhak, Aref

AU - Butt, Zahid

AU - Danawi, Hadi

AU - Dubey, Manisha

AU - Endries, Aman

AU - Faghmous, Imad

AU - Gibney, Katherine

AU - Ginawi, Ibrahim

AU - Gishu, Melkamu

AU - Gugnani, Harish

AU - Gupta, Rahul

AU - Hailu, Gessessew

AU - Hamadeh, Randah

AU - Hamidi, Samer

AU - Harb, Hilda

AU - Hedayati, Mohammad

AU - Hsairi, Mohamed

AU - Husseini, Abdullatif

AU - Jahanmehr, Nader

AU - Javanbakht, Mehdi

AU - Beyene, Tariku

AU - Jonas, Jost

AU - Kasaian, Amir

AU - Khader, Yousef

AU - Khan, Abdurrahman

AU - Khan, Ejazahmad

AU - Khan, Gulfaraz

AU - Khoja, Tawfik

AU - KINFU, Yohannes

AU - Kissoon, Niranjan

AU - Koyanagi, Ai

AU - Lal, Aparna

AU - Latif, Asma Abdul Abdul

AU - Lunevicius, Raimundas

AU - Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan

AU - Majeed, Azeem

AU - Malekzadeh, Reza

AU - Mehari, Alem

AU - Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.

AU - Melaku, Yohannes Adama

AU - Memish, Ziad

AU - Mendoza, Walter

AU - Misganaw, Awoke Temesgen

AU - Mohamed, Layla Abdalla Ibrahim

AU - Nachega, Jean B.

AU - Nguyen, Quyen Le

AU - Nisar, Muhammad Imran

AU - Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame

AU - Platts-Mills, James A.

AU - Pourmalek, Farshad

AU - Qorbani, Mostafa

AU - Rafay, Anwar

AU - Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

AU - Rahman, Sajjad Ur

AU - Rai, Rajesh Kumar

AU - Rana, Saleem M.

AU - Ranabhat, Chhabi L

AU - Rao, Sowmya R.

AU - Refaat, Amany H.

AU - Riddle, Mark

AU - Roshandel, Gholamreza

AU - Ruhago, George Mugambage

AU - Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad

AU - Sanabria, Juan R

AU - Sawhney, Monika

AU - Sepanlou, Sadaf G

AU - Setegn, Tesfaye

AU - Sliwa, Karen

AU - Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.

AU - Sykes, Bryan L.

AU - Tavakkoli, Mohammad

AU - Tedla, Bemnet Amare

AU - Terkawi, Abdullah S

AU - Ukwaja, Kingsley N

AU - Uthman, Olalekan A

AU - Westerman, Ronny

AU - Wubshet, Mamo

AU - Yenesew, Muluken A.

AU - Yonemoto, Naohiro

AU - Younis, Mustafa Z.

AU - Zaidi, Zoubida

AU - Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed

AU - Rabeeah, Abdullah A. Al

AU - Wang, Haidong

AU - Naghavi, Mohsen

AU - Vos, Theo

AU - Lopez, Alan D

AU - Murray, Christopher J L

AU - Mokdad, Ali H

PY - 2016/12/1

Y1 - 2016/12/1

N2 - Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0–1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245–763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520–989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540–65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden

AB - Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0–1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245–763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520–989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540–65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden

KW - Child

KW - Child, Preschool

KW - Cost of Illness

KW - Diarrhea/economics

KW - Disabled Persons

KW - Female

KW - Global Burden of Disease

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Mediterranean Region/epidemiology

KW - Quality-Adjusted Life Years

KW - Risk Factors

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85005950002&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/burden-diarrhea-eastern-mediterranean-region-19902013-findings-global-burden-disease-study-2013

U2 - 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0339

DO - 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0339

M3 - Article

VL - 95

SP - 1319

EP - 1329

JO - Journal. National Malaria Society

JF - Journal. National Malaria Society

SN - 0002-9637

IS - 6

ER -