Calsequestrin and the calcium release channel of skeletal and cardiac muscle

N A Beard, Derek R Laver, Angela F. Dulhunty

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    195 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Calsequestrin is by far the most abundant Ca(2+)-binding protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal and cardiac muscle. It allows the Ca2+ required for contraction to be stored at total concentrations of up to 20mM, while the free Ca2+ concentration remains at approximately 1mM. This storage capacity confers upon muscle the ability to contract frequently with minimal run-down in tension. Calsequestrin is highly acidic, containing up to 50 Ca(2+)-binding sites, which are formed simply by clustering of two or more acidic residues. The Kd for Ca2+ binding is between 1 and 100 microM, depending on the isoform, species and the presence of other cations. Calsequestrin monomers have a molecular mass of approximately 40 kDa and contain approximately 400 residues. The monomer contains three domains each with a compact alpha-helical/beta-sheet thioredoxin fold which is stable in the presence of Ca2+. The protein polymerises when Ca2+ concentrations approach 1mM. The polymer is anchored at one end to ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channels either via the intrinsic membrane proteins triadin and junctin or by binding directly to the RyR. It is becoming clear that calsequestrin has several functions in the lumen of the SR in addition to its well-recognised role as a Ca2+ buffer. Firstly, it is a luminal regulator of RyR activity. When triadin and junctin are present, calsequestrin maximally inhibits the Ca2+ release channel when the free Ca2+ concentration in the SR lumen is 1mM. The inhibition is relieved when the Ca2+ concentration alters, either because of small changes in the conformation of calsequestrin or its dissociation from the junctional face membrane. These changes in calsequestrin's association with the RyR amplify the direct effects of luminal Ca2+ concentration on RyR activity. In addition, calsequestrin activates purified RyRs lacking triadin and junctin. Further roles for calsequestrin are indicated by the kinase activity of the protein, its thioredoxin-like structure and its influence over store operated Ca2+ entry. Clearly, calsequestrin plays a major role in calcium homeostasis that extends well beyond its ability to buffer Ca2+ ions.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)33-69
    Number of pages37
    JournalProgress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
    Volume85
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - May 2004

    Fingerprint

    Calsequestrin
    Calcium Channels
    Myocardium
    Skeletal Muscle
    Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel
    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
    Thioredoxins
    Buffers
    Protein Kinases
    Cluster Analysis
    Cations
    Polymers
    Protein Isoforms
    Membrane Proteins
    Homeostasis

    Cite this

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    title = "Calsequestrin and the calcium release channel of skeletal and cardiac muscle",
    abstract = "Calsequestrin is by far the most abundant Ca(2+)-binding protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal and cardiac muscle. It allows the Ca2+ required for contraction to be stored at total concentrations of up to 20mM, while the free Ca2+ concentration remains at approximately 1mM. This storage capacity confers upon muscle the ability to contract frequently with minimal run-down in tension. Calsequestrin is highly acidic, containing up to 50 Ca(2+)-binding sites, which are formed simply by clustering of two or more acidic residues. The Kd for Ca2+ binding is between 1 and 100 microM, depending on the isoform, species and the presence of other cations. Calsequestrin monomers have a molecular mass of approximately 40 kDa and contain approximately 400 residues. The monomer contains three domains each with a compact alpha-helical/beta-sheet thioredoxin fold which is stable in the presence of Ca2+. The protein polymerises when Ca2+ concentrations approach 1mM. The polymer is anchored at one end to ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channels either via the intrinsic membrane proteins triadin and junctin or by binding directly to the RyR. It is becoming clear that calsequestrin has several functions in the lumen of the SR in addition to its well-recognised role as a Ca2+ buffer. Firstly, it is a luminal regulator of RyR activity. When triadin and junctin are present, calsequestrin maximally inhibits the Ca2+ release channel when the free Ca2+ concentration in the SR lumen is 1mM. The inhibition is relieved when the Ca2+ concentration alters, either because of small changes in the conformation of calsequestrin or its dissociation from the junctional face membrane. These changes in calsequestrin's association with the RyR amplify the direct effects of luminal Ca2+ concentration on RyR activity. In addition, calsequestrin activates purified RyRs lacking triadin and junctin. Further roles for calsequestrin are indicated by the kinase activity of the protein, its thioredoxin-like structure and its influence over store operated Ca2+ entry. Clearly, calsequestrin plays a major role in calcium homeostasis that extends well beyond its ability to buffer Ca2+ ions.",
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    Calsequestrin and the calcium release channel of skeletal and cardiac muscle. / Beard, N A; Laver, Derek R; Dulhunty, Angela F.

    In: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Vol. 85, No. 1, 05.2004, p. 33-69.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Calsequestrin and the calcium release channel of skeletal and cardiac muscle

    AU - Beard, N A

    AU - Laver, Derek R

    AU - Dulhunty, Angela F.

    PY - 2004/5

    Y1 - 2004/5

    N2 - Calsequestrin is by far the most abundant Ca(2+)-binding protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal and cardiac muscle. It allows the Ca2+ required for contraction to be stored at total concentrations of up to 20mM, while the free Ca2+ concentration remains at approximately 1mM. This storage capacity confers upon muscle the ability to contract frequently with minimal run-down in tension. Calsequestrin is highly acidic, containing up to 50 Ca(2+)-binding sites, which are formed simply by clustering of two or more acidic residues. The Kd for Ca2+ binding is between 1 and 100 microM, depending on the isoform, species and the presence of other cations. Calsequestrin monomers have a molecular mass of approximately 40 kDa and contain approximately 400 residues. The monomer contains three domains each with a compact alpha-helical/beta-sheet thioredoxin fold which is stable in the presence of Ca2+. The protein polymerises when Ca2+ concentrations approach 1mM. The polymer is anchored at one end to ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channels either via the intrinsic membrane proteins triadin and junctin or by binding directly to the RyR. It is becoming clear that calsequestrin has several functions in the lumen of the SR in addition to its well-recognised role as a Ca2+ buffer. Firstly, it is a luminal regulator of RyR activity. When triadin and junctin are present, calsequestrin maximally inhibits the Ca2+ release channel when the free Ca2+ concentration in the SR lumen is 1mM. The inhibition is relieved when the Ca2+ concentration alters, either because of small changes in the conformation of calsequestrin or its dissociation from the junctional face membrane. These changes in calsequestrin's association with the RyR amplify the direct effects of luminal Ca2+ concentration on RyR activity. In addition, calsequestrin activates purified RyRs lacking triadin and junctin. Further roles for calsequestrin are indicated by the kinase activity of the protein, its thioredoxin-like structure and its influence over store operated Ca2+ entry. Clearly, calsequestrin plays a major role in calcium homeostasis that extends well beyond its ability to buffer Ca2+ ions.

    AB - Calsequestrin is by far the most abundant Ca(2+)-binding protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal and cardiac muscle. It allows the Ca2+ required for contraction to be stored at total concentrations of up to 20mM, while the free Ca2+ concentration remains at approximately 1mM. This storage capacity confers upon muscle the ability to contract frequently with minimal run-down in tension. Calsequestrin is highly acidic, containing up to 50 Ca(2+)-binding sites, which are formed simply by clustering of two or more acidic residues. The Kd for Ca2+ binding is between 1 and 100 microM, depending on the isoform, species and the presence of other cations. Calsequestrin monomers have a molecular mass of approximately 40 kDa and contain approximately 400 residues. The monomer contains three domains each with a compact alpha-helical/beta-sheet thioredoxin fold which is stable in the presence of Ca2+. The protein polymerises when Ca2+ concentrations approach 1mM. The polymer is anchored at one end to ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channels either via the intrinsic membrane proteins triadin and junctin or by binding directly to the RyR. It is becoming clear that calsequestrin has several functions in the lumen of the SR in addition to its well-recognised role as a Ca2+ buffer. Firstly, it is a luminal regulator of RyR activity. When triadin and junctin are present, calsequestrin maximally inhibits the Ca2+ release channel when the free Ca2+ concentration in the SR lumen is 1mM. The inhibition is relieved when the Ca2+ concentration alters, either because of small changes in the conformation of calsequestrin or its dissociation from the junctional face membrane. These changes in calsequestrin's association with the RyR amplify the direct effects of luminal Ca2+ concentration on RyR activity. In addition, calsequestrin activates purified RyRs lacking triadin and junctin. Further roles for calsequestrin are indicated by the kinase activity of the protein, its thioredoxin-like structure and its influence over store operated Ca2+ entry. Clearly, calsequestrin plays a major role in calcium homeostasis that extends well beyond its ability to buffer Ca2+ ions.

    KW - Amino Acid Sequence

    KW - Animals

    KW - Calcium

    KW - Calcium-Binding Proteins

    KW - Calsequestrin

    KW - Carrier Proteins

    KW - Humans

    KW - Intercellular Junctions

    KW - Membrane Proteins

    KW - Mixed Function Oxygenases

    KW - Molecular Sequence Data

    KW - Muscle Proteins

    KW - Muscle, Skeletal

    KW - Myocardium

    KW - Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel

    KW - Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    KW - Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

    U2 - 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2003.07.001

    DO - 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2003.07.001

    M3 - Review article

    VL - 85

    SP - 33

    EP - 69

    JO - Progress in biophysics and biophysical chemistry

    JF - Progress in biophysics and biophysical chemistry

    SN - 0079-6107

    IS - 1

    ER -