Cardiovascular diseases in women: Policies and practices around the globe to achieve gender equity in cardiac health

Matina Kouvari, Kyriakos Souliotis, Mary Yannakoulia, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The women’s global health agenda has recently been reformulated to address more accurately cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. The aim of the present work was to review the global and national policies and practices that address sex equality in health with a focus on CVDs in women. Scientific databases and health organizations’ websites that presented/discussed policies and initiative targeting to enhance a sex-centered approach regarding general health and/or specifically cardiac health care were reviewed in a systematic way. In total, 61 relevant documents were selected. The selected policies and initiatives included position statements, national action plans, evidence-based guidelines, guidance/recommendations, awareness campaigns, regulations/legislation, and state-of-the art reports by national/international projects and conferences. The target audiences of large stakeholders (eg, American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) were female citizens, health professionals, and researchers. Much as policy-makers have recognized the sex/gender gap in the CVD field, there is still much to be done. Thereby, tailor-made strategies should be designed, evaluated, and delivered on a global and most importantly a national basis to achieve gender equity with regard to CVDs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2079-2094
Number of pages16
JournalRisk Management and Healthcare Policy
Publication statusPublished - 12 Oct 2020


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