Changes in blood gas transport of altitude native soccer players near sea-level and sea-level native soccer players at altitude (ISA3600)

Nadine Wachsmuth, Marlen Kley, Hilde Spielvogel, Robert J. Aughey, Christopher Gore, Pitre C. Bourdon, Kristal Hammond, Charli Sargent, Gregory D. Roach, Rudy Soria Sanchez, Jesus C. Jimenez Claros, Walter F. Schmidt, Laura GARVICAN

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objectives The optimal strategy for soccer teams playing at altitude is not known, that is, ‘fly-in, fly-out’ versus short-term acclimatisation. Here, we document changes in blood gas and vascular volumes of sea-level (Australian, n=20) and altitude (Bolivian, n=19) native soccer players at 3600 m.

Methods Haemoglobin-oxygen saturation (Hb-sO2), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), haemoglobin mass (Hbmass), blood volume (BV) and blood gas concentrations were measured before descent (Bolivians only), together with aerobic fitness (via Yo-YoIR1), near sea-level, after ascent and during 13 days at 3600 m.

Results At baseline, haemoglobin concentration [Hb] and Hbmass were higher in Bolivians (mean±SD; 18.2±1.0 g/dL, 12.8±0.8 g/kg) than Australians (15.0±0.9 g/dL, 11.6±0.7 g/kg; both p≤0.001). Near sea-level, [Hb] of Bolivians decreased to 16.6±0.9 g/dL, but normalised upon return to 3600 m; Hbmass was constant regardless of altitude. In Australians, [Hb] increased after 12 days at 3600 m to 17.3±1.0 g/dL; Hbmass increased by 3.0±2.7% (p≤0.01). BV decreased in both teams at altitude by ∼400 mL. Arterial partial pressure for oxygen (PaO2), Hb-sO2 and CaO2 of both teams decreased within 2 h of arrival at 3600 m (p≤0.001) but increased over the following days, with CaO2 overcompensated in Australians (+1.7±1.2 mL/100 mL; p≤0.001). Yo-YoIR1 was lower on the 3rd versus 10th day at altitude and was significantly related to CaO2.

Conclusions The marked drop in PaO2 and CaO2 observed after ascent does not support the ‘fly-in, fly-out’ approach for soccer teams to play immediately after arrival at altitude. Although short-term acclimatisation was sufficient for Australians to stabilise their CaO2 (mostly due to loss of plasma volume), 12 days appears insufficient to reach chronic levels of adaption
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-99
Number of pages7
JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume47
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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Soccer
Oceans and Seas
Hemoglobins
Gases
Diptera
Acclimatization
Oxygen
Blood Volume
Plasma Volume
Partial Pressure
Blood Vessels
Arterial Pressure

Cite this

Wachsmuth, Nadine ; Kley, Marlen ; Spielvogel, Hilde ; Aughey, Robert J. ; Gore, Christopher ; Bourdon, Pitre C. ; Hammond, Kristal ; Sargent, Charli ; Roach, Gregory D. ; Sanchez, Rudy Soria ; Jimenez Claros, Jesus C. ; Schmidt, Walter F. ; GARVICAN, Laura. / Changes in blood gas transport of altitude native soccer players near sea-level and sea-level native soccer players at altitude (ISA3600). In: British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013 ; Vol. 47. pp. 93-99.
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abstract = "Objectives The optimal strategy for soccer teams playing at altitude is not known, that is, ‘fly-in, fly-out’ versus short-term acclimatisation. Here, we document changes in blood gas and vascular volumes of sea-level (Australian, n=20) and altitude (Bolivian, n=19) native soccer players at 3600 m.Methods Haemoglobin-oxygen saturation (Hb-sO2), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), haemoglobin mass (Hbmass), blood volume (BV) and blood gas concentrations were measured before descent (Bolivians only), together with aerobic fitness (via Yo-YoIR1), near sea-level, after ascent and during 13 days at 3600 m.Results At baseline, haemoglobin concentration [Hb] and Hbmass were higher in Bolivians (mean±SD; 18.2±1.0 g/dL, 12.8±0.8 g/kg) than Australians (15.0±0.9 g/dL, 11.6±0.7 g/kg; both p≤0.001). Near sea-level, [Hb] of Bolivians decreased to 16.6±0.9 g/dL, but normalised upon return to 3600 m; Hbmass was constant regardless of altitude. In Australians, [Hb] increased after 12 days at 3600 m to 17.3±1.0 g/dL; Hbmass increased by 3.0±2.7{\%} (p≤0.01). BV decreased in both teams at altitude by ∼400 mL. Arterial partial pressure for oxygen (PaO2), Hb-sO2 and CaO2 of both teams decreased within 2 h of arrival at 3600 m (p≤0.001) but increased over the following days, with CaO2 overcompensated in Australians (+1.7±1.2 mL/100 mL; p≤0.001). Yo-YoIR1 was lower on the 3rd versus 10th day at altitude and was significantly related to CaO2.Conclusions The marked drop in PaO2 and CaO2 observed after ascent does not support the ‘fly-in, fly-out’ approach for soccer teams to play immediately after arrival at altitude. Although short-term acclimatisation was sufficient for Australians to stabilise their CaO2 (mostly due to loss of plasma volume), 12 days appears insufficient to reach chronic levels of adaption",
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author = "Nadine Wachsmuth and Marlen Kley and Hilde Spielvogel and Aughey, {Robert J.} and Christopher Gore and Bourdon, {Pitre C.} and Kristal Hammond and Charli Sargent and Roach, {Gregory D.} and Sanchez, {Rudy Soria} and {Jimenez Claros}, {Jesus C.} and Schmidt, {Walter F.} and Laura GARVICAN",
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doi = "10.1136/bjsports-2013-092761",
language = "English",
volume = "47",
pages = "93--99",
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Wachsmuth, N, Kley, M, Spielvogel, H, Aughey, RJ, Gore, C, Bourdon, PC, Hammond, K, Sargent, C, Roach, GD, Sanchez, RS, Jimenez Claros, JC, Schmidt, WF & GARVICAN, L 2013, 'Changes in blood gas transport of altitude native soccer players near sea-level and sea-level native soccer players at altitude (ISA3600)', British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 47, pp. 93-99. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092761

Changes in blood gas transport of altitude native soccer players near sea-level and sea-level native soccer players at altitude (ISA3600). / Wachsmuth, Nadine; Kley, Marlen; Spielvogel, Hilde; Aughey, Robert J.; Gore, Christopher; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Hammond, Kristal; Sargent, Charli; Roach, Gregory D.; Sanchez, Rudy Soria; Jimenez Claros, Jesus C.; Schmidt, Walter F.; GARVICAN, Laura.

In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 47, 2013, p. 93-99.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Changes in blood gas transport of altitude native soccer players near sea-level and sea-level native soccer players at altitude (ISA3600)

AU - Wachsmuth, Nadine

AU - Kley, Marlen

AU - Spielvogel, Hilde

AU - Aughey, Robert J.

AU - Gore, Christopher

AU - Bourdon, Pitre C.

AU - Hammond, Kristal

AU - Sargent, Charli

AU - Roach, Gregory D.

AU - Sanchez, Rudy Soria

AU - Jimenez Claros, Jesus C.

AU - Schmidt, Walter F.

AU - GARVICAN, Laura

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Objectives The optimal strategy for soccer teams playing at altitude is not known, that is, ‘fly-in, fly-out’ versus short-term acclimatisation. Here, we document changes in blood gas and vascular volumes of sea-level (Australian, n=20) and altitude (Bolivian, n=19) native soccer players at 3600 m.Methods Haemoglobin-oxygen saturation (Hb-sO2), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), haemoglobin mass (Hbmass), blood volume (BV) and blood gas concentrations were measured before descent (Bolivians only), together with aerobic fitness (via Yo-YoIR1), near sea-level, after ascent and during 13 days at 3600 m.Results At baseline, haemoglobin concentration [Hb] and Hbmass were higher in Bolivians (mean±SD; 18.2±1.0 g/dL, 12.8±0.8 g/kg) than Australians (15.0±0.9 g/dL, 11.6±0.7 g/kg; both p≤0.001). Near sea-level, [Hb] of Bolivians decreased to 16.6±0.9 g/dL, but normalised upon return to 3600 m; Hbmass was constant regardless of altitude. In Australians, [Hb] increased after 12 days at 3600 m to 17.3±1.0 g/dL; Hbmass increased by 3.0±2.7% (p≤0.01). BV decreased in both teams at altitude by ∼400 mL. Arterial partial pressure for oxygen (PaO2), Hb-sO2 and CaO2 of both teams decreased within 2 h of arrival at 3600 m (p≤0.001) but increased over the following days, with CaO2 overcompensated in Australians (+1.7±1.2 mL/100 mL; p≤0.001). Yo-YoIR1 was lower on the 3rd versus 10th day at altitude and was significantly related to CaO2.Conclusions The marked drop in PaO2 and CaO2 observed after ascent does not support the ‘fly-in, fly-out’ approach for soccer teams to play immediately after arrival at altitude. Although short-term acclimatisation was sufficient for Australians to stabilise their CaO2 (mostly due to loss of plasma volume), 12 days appears insufficient to reach chronic levels of adaption

AB - Objectives The optimal strategy for soccer teams playing at altitude is not known, that is, ‘fly-in, fly-out’ versus short-term acclimatisation. Here, we document changes in blood gas and vascular volumes of sea-level (Australian, n=20) and altitude (Bolivian, n=19) native soccer players at 3600 m.Methods Haemoglobin-oxygen saturation (Hb-sO2), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), haemoglobin mass (Hbmass), blood volume (BV) and blood gas concentrations were measured before descent (Bolivians only), together with aerobic fitness (via Yo-YoIR1), near sea-level, after ascent and during 13 days at 3600 m.Results At baseline, haemoglobin concentration [Hb] and Hbmass were higher in Bolivians (mean±SD; 18.2±1.0 g/dL, 12.8±0.8 g/kg) than Australians (15.0±0.9 g/dL, 11.6±0.7 g/kg; both p≤0.001). Near sea-level, [Hb] of Bolivians decreased to 16.6±0.9 g/dL, but normalised upon return to 3600 m; Hbmass was constant regardless of altitude. In Australians, [Hb] increased after 12 days at 3600 m to 17.3±1.0 g/dL; Hbmass increased by 3.0±2.7% (p≤0.01). BV decreased in both teams at altitude by ∼400 mL. Arterial partial pressure for oxygen (PaO2), Hb-sO2 and CaO2 of both teams decreased within 2 h of arrival at 3600 m (p≤0.001) but increased over the following days, with CaO2 overcompensated in Australians (+1.7±1.2 mL/100 mL; p≤0.001). Yo-YoIR1 was lower on the 3rd versus 10th day at altitude and was significantly related to CaO2.Conclusions The marked drop in PaO2 and CaO2 observed after ascent does not support the ‘fly-in, fly-out’ approach for soccer teams to play immediately after arrival at altitude. Although short-term acclimatisation was sufficient for Australians to stabilise their CaO2 (mostly due to loss of plasma volume), 12 days appears insufficient to reach chronic levels of adaption

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DO - 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092761

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JF - British Journal of Sports Medicine

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