Chronic Adherence to a Ketogenic Diet Modifies Iron Metabolism in Elite Athletes

Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Marijke Welvaert, Nicolin Tee, Jill J. Leckey, Avish P. Sharma, Megan L.R. Ross, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Dorine W. Swinkels, Coby M. Laarakkers, Louise M. Burke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: The short-term restriction of carbohydrate (CHO) can potentially influence iron regulation via modification of postexercise interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin levels. This study examined the effect of a chronic ketogenic low-CHO high-fat (LCHF) diet on iron status and iron-regulatory markers in elite athletes. Methods: International-level race walkers (n = 50) were allocated to one of three dietary interventions: (i) a high-CHO diet (n = 16), (ii) a periodized CHO availability (n = 17), or (iii) an LCHF diet (n = 17) while completing a periodized training program for 3 wk. A 19-to 25-km race walking test protocol was completed at baseline and after adaptation, and changes in serum ferritin, IL-6, and hepcidin concentrations were measured. Results from high-CHO and periodized CHO were combined into one group (CHO; n = 33) for analysis. Results: The decrease in serum ferritin across the intervention period was substantially greater in the CHO group (37%) compared with the LCHF (23%) group (P = 0.021). After dietary intervention, the postexercise increase in IL-6 was greater in LCHF (13.6-fold increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.1-21.4) than athletes adhering to a CHO-rich diet (7.6-fold increase; 95% CI = 5.5-10.2; P = 0.033). Although no significant differences occurred between diets, CI values indicate that 3 h postexercise hepcidin concentrations were lower after dietary intervention compared with baseline in CHO (β =-4.3; 95% CI =-6.6 to-2.0), with no differences evident in LCHF. Conclusion: Athletes who adhered to a CHO-rich diet experienced favorable changes to the postexercise IL-6 and hepcidin response, relative to the LCHF group. Lower serum ferritin after 3 wk of additional dietary CHO might reflect a larger more adaptive hematological response to training.

LanguageEnglish
Pages548-555
Number of pages8
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume51
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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Ketogenic Diet
Hepcidins
Athletes
Interleukin-6
Ferritins
Iron
Fats
Confidence Intervals
Diet
High Fat Diet
Serum
Walkers
Walking
Carbohydrates
Education

Cite this

McKay, Alannah K.A. ; Peeling, Peter ; Pyne, David B. ; Welvaert, Marijke ; Tee, Nicolin ; Leckey, Jill J. ; Sharma, Avish P. ; Ross, Megan L.R. ; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A. ; Swinkels, Dorine W. ; Laarakkers, Coby M. ; Burke, Louise M. / Chronic Adherence to a Ketogenic Diet Modifies Iron Metabolism in Elite Athletes. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2019 ; Vol. 51, No. 3. pp. 548-555.
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title = "Chronic Adherence to a Ketogenic Diet Modifies Iron Metabolism in Elite Athletes",
abstract = "Purpose: The short-term restriction of carbohydrate (CHO) can potentially influence iron regulation via modification of postexercise interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin levels. This study examined the effect of a chronic ketogenic low-CHO high-fat (LCHF) diet on iron status and iron-regulatory markers in elite athletes. Methods: International-level race walkers (n = 50) were allocated to one of three dietary interventions: (i) a high-CHO diet (n = 16), (ii) a periodized CHO availability (n = 17), or (iii) an LCHF diet (n = 17) while completing a periodized training program for 3 wk. A 19-to 25-km race walking test protocol was completed at baseline and after adaptation, and changes in serum ferritin, IL-6, and hepcidin concentrations were measured. Results from high-CHO and periodized CHO were combined into one group (CHO; n = 33) for analysis. Results: The decrease in serum ferritin across the intervention period was substantially greater in the CHO group (37{\%}) compared with the LCHF (23{\%}) group (P = 0.021). After dietary intervention, the postexercise increase in IL-6 was greater in LCHF (13.6-fold increase; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI] = 7.1-21.4) than athletes adhering to a CHO-rich diet (7.6-fold increase; 95{\%} CI = 5.5-10.2; P = 0.033). Although no significant differences occurred between diets, CI values indicate that 3 h postexercise hepcidin concentrations were lower after dietary intervention compared with baseline in CHO (β =-4.3; 95{\%} CI =-6.6 to-2.0), with no differences evident in LCHF. Conclusion: Athletes who adhered to a CHO-rich diet experienced favorable changes to the postexercise IL-6 and hepcidin response, relative to the LCHF group. Lower serum ferritin after 3 wk of additional dietary CHO might reflect a larger more adaptive hematological response to training.",
keywords = "CARBOHYDRATE, HEPCIDIN, INFLAMMATION, LCHF, RACE WALKERS",
author = "McKay, {Alannah K.A.} and Peter Peeling and Pyne, {David B.} and Marijke Welvaert and Nicolin Tee and Leckey, {Jill J.} and Sharma, {Avish P.} and Ross, {Megan L.R.} and Garvican-Lewis, {Laura A.} and Swinkels, {Dorine W.} and Laarakkers, {Coby M.} and Burke, {Louise M.}",
year = "2019",
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McKay, AKA, Peeling, P, Pyne, DB, Welvaert, M, Tee, N, Leckey, JJ, Sharma, AP, Ross, MLR, Garvican-Lewis, LA, Swinkels, DW, Laarakkers, CM & Burke, LM 2019, 'Chronic Adherence to a Ketogenic Diet Modifies Iron Metabolism in Elite Athletes', Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 548-555. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001816

Chronic Adherence to a Ketogenic Diet Modifies Iron Metabolism in Elite Athletes. / McKay, Alannah K.A.; Peeling, Peter; Pyne, David B.; Welvaert, Marijke; Tee, Nicolin; Leckey, Jill J.; Sharma, Avish P.; Ross, Megan L.R.; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Laarakkers, Coby M.; Burke, Louise M.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2019, p. 548-555.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Chronic Adherence to a Ketogenic Diet Modifies Iron Metabolism in Elite Athletes

AU - McKay, Alannah K.A.

AU - Peeling, Peter

AU - Pyne, David B.

AU - Welvaert, Marijke

AU - Tee, Nicolin

AU - Leckey, Jill J.

AU - Sharma, Avish P.

AU - Ross, Megan L.R.

AU - Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.

AU - Swinkels, Dorine W.

AU - Laarakkers, Coby M.

AU - Burke, Louise M.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Purpose: The short-term restriction of carbohydrate (CHO) can potentially influence iron regulation via modification of postexercise interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin levels. This study examined the effect of a chronic ketogenic low-CHO high-fat (LCHF) diet on iron status and iron-regulatory markers in elite athletes. Methods: International-level race walkers (n = 50) were allocated to one of three dietary interventions: (i) a high-CHO diet (n = 16), (ii) a periodized CHO availability (n = 17), or (iii) an LCHF diet (n = 17) while completing a periodized training program for 3 wk. A 19-to 25-km race walking test protocol was completed at baseline and after adaptation, and changes in serum ferritin, IL-6, and hepcidin concentrations were measured. Results from high-CHO and periodized CHO were combined into one group (CHO; n = 33) for analysis. Results: The decrease in serum ferritin across the intervention period was substantially greater in the CHO group (37%) compared with the LCHF (23%) group (P = 0.021). After dietary intervention, the postexercise increase in IL-6 was greater in LCHF (13.6-fold increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.1-21.4) than athletes adhering to a CHO-rich diet (7.6-fold increase; 95% CI = 5.5-10.2; P = 0.033). Although no significant differences occurred between diets, CI values indicate that 3 h postexercise hepcidin concentrations were lower after dietary intervention compared with baseline in CHO (β =-4.3; 95% CI =-6.6 to-2.0), with no differences evident in LCHF. Conclusion: Athletes who adhered to a CHO-rich diet experienced favorable changes to the postexercise IL-6 and hepcidin response, relative to the LCHF group. Lower serum ferritin after 3 wk of additional dietary CHO might reflect a larger more adaptive hematological response to training.

AB - Purpose: The short-term restriction of carbohydrate (CHO) can potentially influence iron regulation via modification of postexercise interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin levels. This study examined the effect of a chronic ketogenic low-CHO high-fat (LCHF) diet on iron status and iron-regulatory markers in elite athletes. Methods: International-level race walkers (n = 50) were allocated to one of three dietary interventions: (i) a high-CHO diet (n = 16), (ii) a periodized CHO availability (n = 17), or (iii) an LCHF diet (n = 17) while completing a periodized training program for 3 wk. A 19-to 25-km race walking test protocol was completed at baseline and after adaptation, and changes in serum ferritin, IL-6, and hepcidin concentrations were measured. Results from high-CHO and periodized CHO were combined into one group (CHO; n = 33) for analysis. Results: The decrease in serum ferritin across the intervention period was substantially greater in the CHO group (37%) compared with the LCHF (23%) group (P = 0.021). After dietary intervention, the postexercise increase in IL-6 was greater in LCHF (13.6-fold increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.1-21.4) than athletes adhering to a CHO-rich diet (7.6-fold increase; 95% CI = 5.5-10.2; P = 0.033). Although no significant differences occurred between diets, CI values indicate that 3 h postexercise hepcidin concentrations were lower after dietary intervention compared with baseline in CHO (β =-4.3; 95% CI =-6.6 to-2.0), with no differences evident in LCHF. Conclusion: Athletes who adhered to a CHO-rich diet experienced favorable changes to the postexercise IL-6 and hepcidin response, relative to the LCHF group. Lower serum ferritin after 3 wk of additional dietary CHO might reflect a larger more adaptive hematological response to training.

KW - CARBOHYDRATE

KW - HEPCIDIN

KW - INFLAMMATION

KW - LCHF

KW - RACE WALKERS

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UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/chronic-adherence-ketogenic-diet-modifies-iron-metabolism-elite-athletes-1

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DO - 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001816

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EP - 555

JO - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

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JF - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

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