Chronic ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat diet has minimal effects on acid–base status in elite athletes

Amelia J. Carr, Avish P. Sharma, Megan L. Ross, Marijke Welvaert, Gary J. Slater, Louise M. Burke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid–base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non‐randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre‐ and post‐exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO3 ) and lactate (La) in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control. Twenty‐four (17 male and 7 female) elite‐level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9), PCHO (n = 7), or HCHO (n = 8) under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post‐intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO3 ], and blood [La] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP) over the previous 48–72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO3 ], or [La], compared with the HCHO diet pre‐ or post‐exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq∙day−1) (95% CI = [10.44; 36.04]). Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid–base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre‐existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid–base status than nutritional intake.

Original languageEnglish
Article number236
JournalNutrients
Volume10
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Feb 2018

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Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet
low carbohydrate diet
athletes
High Fat Diet
high fat diet
Athletes
Carbohydrates
blood pH
carbohydrates
lactates
Lactic Acid
Fats
Diet
lipids
diet
Walkers
exercise test
Acids
buffering capacity
acids

Cite this

Carr, A. J., Sharma, A. P., Ross, M. L., Welvaert, M., Slater, G. J., & Burke, L. M. (2018). Chronic ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat diet has minimal effects on acid–base status in elite athletes. Nutrients, 10(2), [236]. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020236
Carr, Amelia J. ; Sharma, Avish P. ; Ross, Megan L. ; Welvaert, Marijke ; Slater, Gary J. ; Burke, Louise M. / Chronic ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat diet has minimal effects on acid–base status in elite athletes. In: Nutrients. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 2.
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abstract = "Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid–base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non‐randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre‐ and post‐exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO3 −) and lactate (La−) in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control. Twenty‐four (17 male and 7 female) elite‐level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9), PCHO (n = 7), or HCHO (n = 8) under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post‐intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO3 −], and blood [La−] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP) over the previous 48–72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO3 −], or [La−], compared with the HCHO diet pre‐ or post‐exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq∙day−1) (95{\%} CI = [10.44; 36.04]). Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid–base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre‐existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid–base status than nutritional intake.",
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Carr, AJ, Sharma, AP, Ross, ML, Welvaert, M, Slater, GJ & Burke, LM 2018, 'Chronic ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat diet has minimal effects on acid–base status in elite athletes', Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 2, 236. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020236

Chronic ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat diet has minimal effects on acid–base status in elite athletes. / Carr, Amelia J.; Sharma, Avish P.; Ross, Megan L.; Welvaert, Marijke; Slater, Gary J.; Burke, Louise M.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 10, No. 2, 236, 18.02.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Chronic ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat diet has minimal effects on acid–base status in elite athletes

AU - Carr, Amelia J.

AU - Sharma, Avish P.

AU - Ross, Megan L.

AU - Welvaert, Marijke

AU - Slater, Gary J.

AU - Burke, Louise M.

PY - 2018/2/18

Y1 - 2018/2/18

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AB - Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid–base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non‐randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre‐ and post‐exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO3 −) and lactate (La−) in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control. Twenty‐four (17 male and 7 female) elite‐level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9), PCHO (n = 7), or HCHO (n = 8) under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post‐intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO3 −], and blood [La−] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP) over the previous 48–72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO3 −], or [La−], compared with the HCHO diet pre‐ or post‐exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq∙day−1) (95% CI = [10.44; 36.04]). Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid–base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre‐existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid–base status than nutritional intake.

KW - Dietary interventions

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KW - Keto‐adaptation

KW - Periodized carbohydrate diet

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85042301884&partnerID=8YFLogxK

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