Cigarette smoking, steroid hormones, and bone mineral density in young women

Mark Daniel, Alan D. Martin, Donald T. Drinkwater

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

63 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

There are few studies of the effect of smoking on bone density in young women. The reported antiestrogenic effect of smoking could be a mechanism for a possible effect of smoking on bone. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (whole body, proximal femur, lumbar spine), and serum levels (midfollicular phase) of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and cortisol in 52 women (25 smokers, 27 nonsmokers) aged 20-35 years. The two groups did not differ significantly in age, height, weight, or the sum of eight skinfold thicknesses. The mean number of cigarettes smoked per day and the number of years of smoking were 16.9 and 12.9, respectively. There were no significant differences in BMD between smokers and nonsmokers at any site. For both smokers and nonsmokers, SHBG and the free androgen index (T/SHBG) made significant contributions (P<0.005) to the variance in BMD at all sitesexcept the lumbar spine. The free estradiol index (E2/SHBG) contributed to whole body BMD (P<0.05). For all subjects, there were significant inverse relationships between SHBG and BMD (P<0.002), and positive relationships between T/SHBG and BMD (P<0.02) for all sites except the lumbar spine. These data suggest that moderate smoking in young women is not associated with low BMD at any site. However, smokers had lower free estradiol and higher SHBG, both of which have been related to increased bone loss in older women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)300-305
Number of pages6
JournalCalcified Tissue International
Volume50
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1992
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin
Bone Density
Smoking
Steroids
Hormones
Estradiol
Spine
Bone and Bones
Skinfold Thickness
Photon Absorptiometry
Tobacco Products
Femur
Androgens
Hydrocortisone
Testosterone
Weights and Measures
Serum

Cite this

Daniel, Mark ; Martin, Alan D. ; Drinkwater, Donald T. / Cigarette smoking, steroid hormones, and bone mineral density in young women. In: Calcified Tissue International. 1992 ; Vol. 50, No. 4. pp. 300-305.
@article{c8a51ae0a8084b55a163f23cdec724ca,
title = "Cigarette smoking, steroid hormones, and bone mineral density in young women",
abstract = "There are few studies of the effect of smoking on bone density in young women. The reported antiestrogenic effect of smoking could be a mechanism for a possible effect of smoking on bone. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (whole body, proximal femur, lumbar spine), and serum levels (midfollicular phase) of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and cortisol in 52 women (25 smokers, 27 nonsmokers) aged 20-35 years. The two groups did not differ significantly in age, height, weight, or the sum of eight skinfold thicknesses. The mean number of cigarettes smoked per day and the number of years of smoking were 16.9 and 12.9, respectively. There were no significant differences in BMD between smokers and nonsmokers at any site. For both smokers and nonsmokers, SHBG and the free androgen index (T/SHBG) made significant contributions (P<0.005) to the variance in BMD at all sitesexcept the lumbar spine. The free estradiol index (E2/SHBG) contributed to whole body BMD (P<0.05). For all subjects, there were significant inverse relationships between SHBG and BMD (P<0.002), and positive relationships between T/SHBG and BMD (P<0.02) for all sites except the lumbar spine. These data suggest that moderate smoking in young women is not associated with low BMD at any site. However, smokers had lower free estradiol and higher SHBG, both of which have been related to increased bone loss in older women.",
keywords = "Bone density, Cortisol, Estradiol, Female, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Smoking, Testosterone",
author = "Mark Daniel and Martin, {Alan D.} and Drinkwater, {Donald T.}",
year = "1992",
doi = "10.1007/BF00301626",
language = "English",
volume = "50",
pages = "300--305",
journal = "Calcified Tissue Research",
issn = "0171-967X",
publisher = "Springer",
number = "4",

}

Cigarette smoking, steroid hormones, and bone mineral density in young women. / Daniel, Mark; Martin, Alan D.; Drinkwater, Donald T.

In: Calcified Tissue International, Vol. 50, No. 4, 1992, p. 300-305.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cigarette smoking, steroid hormones, and bone mineral density in young women

AU - Daniel, Mark

AU - Martin, Alan D.

AU - Drinkwater, Donald T.

PY - 1992

Y1 - 1992

N2 - There are few studies of the effect of smoking on bone density in young women. The reported antiestrogenic effect of smoking could be a mechanism for a possible effect of smoking on bone. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (whole body, proximal femur, lumbar spine), and serum levels (midfollicular phase) of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and cortisol in 52 women (25 smokers, 27 nonsmokers) aged 20-35 years. The two groups did not differ significantly in age, height, weight, or the sum of eight skinfold thicknesses. The mean number of cigarettes smoked per day and the number of years of smoking were 16.9 and 12.9, respectively. There were no significant differences in BMD between smokers and nonsmokers at any site. For both smokers and nonsmokers, SHBG and the free androgen index (T/SHBG) made significant contributions (P<0.005) to the variance in BMD at all sitesexcept the lumbar spine. The free estradiol index (E2/SHBG) contributed to whole body BMD (P<0.05). For all subjects, there were significant inverse relationships between SHBG and BMD (P<0.002), and positive relationships between T/SHBG and BMD (P<0.02) for all sites except the lumbar spine. These data suggest that moderate smoking in young women is not associated with low BMD at any site. However, smokers had lower free estradiol and higher SHBG, both of which have been related to increased bone loss in older women.

AB - There are few studies of the effect of smoking on bone density in young women. The reported antiestrogenic effect of smoking could be a mechanism for a possible effect of smoking on bone. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (whole body, proximal femur, lumbar spine), and serum levels (midfollicular phase) of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and cortisol in 52 women (25 smokers, 27 nonsmokers) aged 20-35 years. The two groups did not differ significantly in age, height, weight, or the sum of eight skinfold thicknesses. The mean number of cigarettes smoked per day and the number of years of smoking were 16.9 and 12.9, respectively. There were no significant differences in BMD between smokers and nonsmokers at any site. For both smokers and nonsmokers, SHBG and the free androgen index (T/SHBG) made significant contributions (P<0.005) to the variance in BMD at all sitesexcept the lumbar spine. The free estradiol index (E2/SHBG) contributed to whole body BMD (P<0.05). For all subjects, there were significant inverse relationships between SHBG and BMD (P<0.002), and positive relationships between T/SHBG and BMD (P<0.02) for all sites except the lumbar spine. These data suggest that moderate smoking in young women is not associated with low BMD at any site. However, smokers had lower free estradiol and higher SHBG, both of which have been related to increased bone loss in older women.

KW - Bone density

KW - Cortisol

KW - Estradiol

KW - Female

KW - Sex hormone-binding globulin

KW - Smoking

KW - Testosterone

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026568512&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/BF00301626

DO - 10.1007/BF00301626

M3 - Article

VL - 50

SP - 300

EP - 305

JO - Calcified Tissue Research

JF - Calcified Tissue Research

SN - 0171-967X

IS - 4

ER -