CLEAR - Anatomy and physiology of the anterior eye

Laura E. Downie, Stefan Bandlitz, Jan P.G Bergmanson, Jennifer P Craig, Debarun Dutta, Carole Maldonaldo-Codina, William Ngo, Jaya Sowjanya Siddireddy, James S Wolffsohn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


A key element of contact lens practice involves clinical evaluation of anterior eye health, including the cornea and limbus, conjunctiva and sclera, eyelids and eyelashes, lacrimal system and tear film. This report reviews the fundamental anatomy and physiology of these structures, including the vascular supply, venous drainage, lymphatic drainage, sensory innervation, physiology and function. This is the foundation for considering the potential interactions with, and effects of, contact lens wear on the anterior eye. This information is not consistently published as academic research and this report provides a synthesis from all available sources. With respect to terminology, the report aims to promote the consistent use of nomenclature in the field, and generally adopts anatomical terms recommended by the Federative Committee for Anatomical Terminology. Techniques for the examination of the ocular surface are also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-156
Number of pages25
JournalContact Lens and Anterior Eye
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes


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