Comparison of Body Composition Assessment Methods in Professional Urban Firefighters

Disa J Smee, Anthony Walker, Ben Rattray, Julie A Cooke, Ben G Serpell, Kate L Pumpa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Given the importance of body composition in maintaining optimal physical and functional capacities, the use of appropriate, field-based assessment tools should be a priority to assist in maintaining the occupational safety of firefighters and the community. For ease, body mass index (BMI) has often been used to assess these changes. However, it is limited in its accuracy. The purposes of this study were twofold; 1) to compare the validity of different measures of body composition against dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in urban firefighters and 2) to assess these measures in their ability to provide meaningful interpretation of criteria-driven categories of adiposity. Sixty-four male Firefighters (age 44.0±9.5 years) underwent full anthropometric profiling (predictor equations used to determine body fat % (BF%)), bio-impedance analysis (BIA) and DXA assessments. Participants' BMI was calculated and BF % and lean mass were determined along with criteria-driven categorisations of adiposity. Anthropometric (skinfolds) predictor equations (e.g. mean bias -4.4 % for BF%) were typically closer to DXA measures, compared to BIA (9.4% for BF%). However, when determining categories of criteria-driven adiposity, BIA (42.9% overweight or obese) provided closer estimates to the DXA determined-distribution (44.6%) than anthropometric based measures (up to 40%). BMI appears an inappropriate measure for accurately determining categories of adiposity with 64.1% classified as overweight or obese. Given the logistical constraints of anthropometric profiling, and the closeness of BIA to DXA in adiposity categories, BIA may be a suitable alternative to DXA for assessing body composition in professional urban firefighters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Nutrition
Early online date10 Jul 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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Firefighters
Photon Absorptiometry
Body Composition
Adiposity
Electric Impedance
Adipose Tissue
Body Mass Index
Occupational Health

Cite this

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abstract = "Given the importance of body composition in maintaining optimal physical and functional capacities, the use of appropriate, field-based assessment tools should be a priority to assist in maintaining the occupational safety of firefighters and the community. For ease, body mass index (BMI) has often been used to assess these changes. However, it is limited in its accuracy. The purposes of this study were twofold; 1) to compare the validity of different measures of body composition against dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in urban firefighters and 2) to assess these measures in their ability to provide meaningful interpretation of criteria-driven categories of adiposity. Sixty-four male Firefighters (age 44.0±9.5 years) underwent full anthropometric profiling (predictor equations used to determine body fat {\%} (BF{\%})), bio-impedance analysis (BIA) and DXA assessments. Participants' BMI was calculated and BF {\%} and lean mass were determined along with criteria-driven categorisations of adiposity. Anthropometric (skinfolds) predictor equations (e.g. mean bias -4.4 {\%} for BF{\%}) were typically closer to DXA measures, compared to BIA (9.4{\%} for BF{\%}). However, when determining categories of criteria-driven adiposity, BIA (42.9{\%} overweight or obese) provided closer estimates to the DXA determined-distribution (44.6{\%}) than anthropometric based measures (up to 40{\%}). BMI appears an inappropriate measure for accurately determining categories of adiposity with 64.1{\%} classified as overweight or obese. Given the logistical constraints of anthropometric profiling, and the closeness of BIA to DXA in adiposity categories, BIA may be a suitable alternative to DXA for assessing body composition in professional urban firefighters.",
keywords = "Anthropometry, Body Fat, body mass index, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, emergency services",
author = "Smee, {Disa J} and Anthony Walker and Ben Rattray and Cooke, {Julie A} and Serpell, {Ben G} and Pumpa, {Kate L}",
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AU - Pumpa, Kate L

PY - 2018

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N2 - Given the importance of body composition in maintaining optimal physical and functional capacities, the use of appropriate, field-based assessment tools should be a priority to assist in maintaining the occupational safety of firefighters and the community. For ease, body mass index (BMI) has often been used to assess these changes. However, it is limited in its accuracy. The purposes of this study were twofold; 1) to compare the validity of different measures of body composition against dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in urban firefighters and 2) to assess these measures in their ability to provide meaningful interpretation of criteria-driven categories of adiposity. Sixty-four male Firefighters (age 44.0±9.5 years) underwent full anthropometric profiling (predictor equations used to determine body fat % (BF%)), bio-impedance analysis (BIA) and DXA assessments. Participants' BMI was calculated and BF % and lean mass were determined along with criteria-driven categorisations of adiposity. Anthropometric (skinfolds) predictor equations (e.g. mean bias -4.4 % for BF%) were typically closer to DXA measures, compared to BIA (9.4% for BF%). However, when determining categories of criteria-driven adiposity, BIA (42.9% overweight or obese) provided closer estimates to the DXA determined-distribution (44.6%) than anthropometric based measures (up to 40%). BMI appears an inappropriate measure for accurately determining categories of adiposity with 64.1% classified as overweight or obese. Given the logistical constraints of anthropometric profiling, and the closeness of BIA to DXA in adiposity categories, BIA may be a suitable alternative to DXA for assessing body composition in professional urban firefighters.

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KW - Anthropometry

KW - Body Fat

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KW - dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

KW - emergency services

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