Comparison of the Mediterranean diet and the Dietary Approach Stop Hypertension in reducing the risk of 10-year fatal and non-fatal CVD events in healthy adults: The ATTICA Study (2002-2012)

Elena Critselis, Meropi D. Kontogianni, Ekavi Georgousopoulou, Christina Chrysohoou, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Christos Pitsavos, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To compare the Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets in deterring 10-year CVD. Design: Prospective cohort (n 2020) with a 10-year follow-up period for the occurrence of combined (fatal or non-fatal) CVD incidence (International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10). Baseline adherence to the Mediterranean and DASH diets was assessed via a semi-quantitative FFQ according to the MedDietScore and DASH scores, respectively. Setting: Attica, Greece. Participants: Two thousand twenty individuals (mean age at baseline 45·2 (sd 14·0) years). Results: One-third of individuals in the lowest quartile of Mediterranean diet consumption, as compared with 3·1 % of those in the highest quartile, developed 10-year CVD (P < 0·0001). In contrast, individuals in the lowest and highest DASH diet quartiles exhibited similar 10-year CVD rates (n (%) of 10-year CVD in DASH diet quartiles 1 v. 4: 79 (14·7 %) v. 75 (15·3 %); P = 0·842). Following adjustment for demographic, lifestyle and clinical confounding factors, those in the highest Mediterranean diet quartile had a 4-fold reduced 10-year CVD risk (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 4·52, 95 % CI 1·76, 11·63). However, individuals with highest DASH diet quartile scores did not differ from their lowest quartile counterparts in developing such events (adjusted HR 1·05, 95 % CI 0·69, 1·60). Conclusions High adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and not to the DASH diet, was associated with a lower risk of 10-year fatal and non-fatal CVD. Therefore, public health interventions aimed at enhancing adherence to the Mediterranean diet, rather than the DASH diet, may most effectively deter long-term CVD outcomes particularly in Mediterranean populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2746-2757
Number of pages12
JournalPublic Health Nutrition
Volume24
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021

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