Core temperature responses to cold-water immersion recovery

A pooled-data analysis

Jessica M. Stephens, Ken Sharpe, Christopher Gore, Joanna Miller, Gary J. Slater, Nathan Versey, Jeremiah Peiffer, Rob Duffield, Geoffrey M. Minett, David Crampton, Alan Dunne, Christopher D. Askew, Shona L. Halson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To examine the effect of postexercise cold-water immersion (CWI) protocols, compared with control (CON), on the magnitude and time course of core temperature (Tc) responses. Methods: Pooled-data analyses were used to examine the Tc responses of 157 subjects from previous postexercise CWI trials in the authors’ laboratories. CWI protocols varied with different combinations of temperature, duration, immersion depth, and mode (continuous vs intermittent). Tc was examined as a double difference (ΔΔTc), calculated as the change in Tc in CWI condition minus the corresponding change in CON. The effect of CWI on ΔΔTc was assessed using separate linear mixed models across 2 time components (component 1, immersion; component 2, postintervention). Results: Intermittent CWI resulted in a mean decrease in ΔΔTc that was 0.25°C (0.10°C) (estimate [SE]) greater than continuous CWI during the immersion component (P = .02). There was a significant effect of CWI temperature during the immersion component (P = .05), where reductions in water temperature of 1°C resulted in decreases in ΔΔTc of 0.03°C (0.01°C). Similarly, the effect of CWI duration was significant during the immersion component (P = .01), where every 1 min of immersion resulted in a decrease in ΔΔTc of 0.02°C (0.01°C). The peak difference in Tc between the CWI and CON interventions during the postimmersion component occurred at 60 min postintervention. Conclusions: Variations in CWI mode, duration, and temperature may have a significant effect on the extent of change in Tc. Careful consideration should be given to determine the optimal amount of core cooling before deciding which combination of protocol factors to prescribe.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)917-925
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Volume13
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018

Fingerprint

Immersion
Temperature
Water

Cite this

Stephens, J. M., Sharpe, K., Gore, C., Miller, J., Slater, G. J., Versey, N., ... Halson, S. L. (2018). Core temperature responses to cold-water immersion recovery: A pooled-data analysis. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13(7), 917-925. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0661
Stephens, Jessica M. ; Sharpe, Ken ; Gore, Christopher ; Miller, Joanna ; Slater, Gary J. ; Versey, Nathan ; Peiffer, Jeremiah ; Duffield, Rob ; Minett, Geoffrey M. ; Crampton, David ; Dunne, Alan ; Askew, Christopher D. ; Halson, Shona L. / Core temperature responses to cold-water immersion recovery : A pooled-data analysis. In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2018 ; Vol. 13, No. 7. pp. 917-925.
@article{73d0d496985446cba6b9388aade44bb1,
title = "Core temperature responses to cold-water immersion recovery: A pooled-data analysis",
abstract = "Purpose: To examine the effect of postexercise cold-water immersion (CWI) protocols, compared with control (CON), on the magnitude and time course of core temperature (Tc) responses. Methods: Pooled-data analyses were used to examine the Tc responses of 157 subjects from previous postexercise CWI trials in the authors’ laboratories. CWI protocols varied with different combinations of temperature, duration, immersion depth, and mode (continuous vs intermittent). Tc was examined as a double difference (ΔΔTc), calculated as the change in Tc in CWI condition minus the corresponding change in CON. The effect of CWI on ΔΔTc was assessed using separate linear mixed models across 2 time components (component 1, immersion; component 2, postintervention). Results: Intermittent CWI resulted in a mean decrease in ΔΔTc that was 0.25°C (0.10°C) (estimate [SE]) greater than continuous CWI during the immersion component (P = .02). There was a significant effect of CWI temperature during the immersion component (P = .05), where reductions in water temperature of 1°C resulted in decreases in ΔΔTc of 0.03°C (0.01°C). Similarly, the effect of CWI duration was significant during the immersion component (P = .01), where every 1 min of immersion resulted in a decrease in ΔΔTc of 0.02°C (0.01°C). The peak difference in Tc between the CWI and CON interventions during the postimmersion component occurred at 60 min postintervention. Conclusions: Variations in CWI mode, duration, and temperature may have a significant effect on the extent of change in Tc. Careful consideration should be given to determine the optimal amount of core cooling before deciding which combination of protocol factors to prescribe.",
keywords = "Exercise, Hydrotherapy, Ice bath, Performance, Protocol variance",
author = "Stephens, {Jessica M.} and Ken Sharpe and Christopher Gore and Joanna Miller and Slater, {Gary J.} and Nathan Versey and Jeremiah Peiffer and Rob Duffield and Minett, {Geoffrey M.} and David Crampton and Alan Dunne and Askew, {Christopher D.} and Halson, {Shona L.}",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1123/ijspp.2017-0661",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "917--925",
journal = "International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance",
issn = "1555-0265",
publisher = "Human Kinetics Publishers Inc.",
number = "7",

}

Stephens, JM, Sharpe, K, Gore, C, Miller, J, Slater, GJ, Versey, N, Peiffer, J, Duffield, R, Minett, GM, Crampton, D, Dunne, A, Askew, CD & Halson, SL 2018, 'Core temperature responses to cold-water immersion recovery: A pooled-data analysis', International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 917-925. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0661

Core temperature responses to cold-water immersion recovery : A pooled-data analysis. / Stephens, Jessica M.; Sharpe, Ken; Gore, Christopher; Miller, Joanna; Slater, Gary J.; Versey, Nathan; Peiffer, Jeremiah; Duffield, Rob; Minett, Geoffrey M.; Crampton, David; Dunne, Alan; Askew, Christopher D.; Halson, Shona L.

In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Vol. 13, No. 7, 08.2018, p. 917-925.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Core temperature responses to cold-water immersion recovery

T2 - A pooled-data analysis

AU - Stephens, Jessica M.

AU - Sharpe, Ken

AU - Gore, Christopher

AU - Miller, Joanna

AU - Slater, Gary J.

AU - Versey, Nathan

AU - Peiffer, Jeremiah

AU - Duffield, Rob

AU - Minett, Geoffrey M.

AU - Crampton, David

AU - Dunne, Alan

AU - Askew, Christopher D.

AU - Halson, Shona L.

PY - 2018/8

Y1 - 2018/8

N2 - Purpose: To examine the effect of postexercise cold-water immersion (CWI) protocols, compared with control (CON), on the magnitude and time course of core temperature (Tc) responses. Methods: Pooled-data analyses were used to examine the Tc responses of 157 subjects from previous postexercise CWI trials in the authors’ laboratories. CWI protocols varied with different combinations of temperature, duration, immersion depth, and mode (continuous vs intermittent). Tc was examined as a double difference (ΔΔTc), calculated as the change in Tc in CWI condition minus the corresponding change in CON. The effect of CWI on ΔΔTc was assessed using separate linear mixed models across 2 time components (component 1, immersion; component 2, postintervention). Results: Intermittent CWI resulted in a mean decrease in ΔΔTc that was 0.25°C (0.10°C) (estimate [SE]) greater than continuous CWI during the immersion component (P = .02). There was a significant effect of CWI temperature during the immersion component (P = .05), where reductions in water temperature of 1°C resulted in decreases in ΔΔTc of 0.03°C (0.01°C). Similarly, the effect of CWI duration was significant during the immersion component (P = .01), where every 1 min of immersion resulted in a decrease in ΔΔTc of 0.02°C (0.01°C). The peak difference in Tc between the CWI and CON interventions during the postimmersion component occurred at 60 min postintervention. Conclusions: Variations in CWI mode, duration, and temperature may have a significant effect on the extent of change in Tc. Careful consideration should be given to determine the optimal amount of core cooling before deciding which combination of protocol factors to prescribe.

AB - Purpose: To examine the effect of postexercise cold-water immersion (CWI) protocols, compared with control (CON), on the magnitude and time course of core temperature (Tc) responses. Methods: Pooled-data analyses were used to examine the Tc responses of 157 subjects from previous postexercise CWI trials in the authors’ laboratories. CWI protocols varied with different combinations of temperature, duration, immersion depth, and mode (continuous vs intermittent). Tc was examined as a double difference (ΔΔTc), calculated as the change in Tc in CWI condition minus the corresponding change in CON. The effect of CWI on ΔΔTc was assessed using separate linear mixed models across 2 time components (component 1, immersion; component 2, postintervention). Results: Intermittent CWI resulted in a mean decrease in ΔΔTc that was 0.25°C (0.10°C) (estimate [SE]) greater than continuous CWI during the immersion component (P = .02). There was a significant effect of CWI temperature during the immersion component (P = .05), where reductions in water temperature of 1°C resulted in decreases in ΔΔTc of 0.03°C (0.01°C). Similarly, the effect of CWI duration was significant during the immersion component (P = .01), where every 1 min of immersion resulted in a decrease in ΔΔTc of 0.02°C (0.01°C). The peak difference in Tc between the CWI and CON interventions during the postimmersion component occurred at 60 min postintervention. Conclusions: Variations in CWI mode, duration, and temperature may have a significant effect on the extent of change in Tc. Careful consideration should be given to determine the optimal amount of core cooling before deciding which combination of protocol factors to prescribe.

KW - Exercise

KW - Hydrotherapy

KW - Ice bath

KW - Performance

KW - Protocol variance

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85052385053&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1123/ijspp.2017-0661

DO - 10.1123/ijspp.2017-0661

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 917

EP - 925

JO - International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

JF - International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

SN - 1555-0265

IS - 7

ER -