|Title of host publication||Encyclopedia of Sustainable Management|
|Editors||S Idowu, R Schmidpeter, N Capaldi, L Zu, M Del Baldo, R Abreu|
|Place of Publication||Netherlands|
|Number of pages||1|
|Publication status||Published - 29 Jan 2021|
Unlike the “cradle to grave” linear material flow, the term “cradle to cradle” (C2C) is used to explain an alternative approach that “waste” produced by industrial manufacturing processes can be used in a new manufacturing cycle without degrading or downcycling the materials used in the process but rather improving the whole cycle. As a result, there is no such thing as “waste” under “cradle to cradle” flow. It is a more efficient process from an economic, environmental, and social perspective. One of the critical steps suggested for the implementation of the C2C approach is creating an inventory of materials used to produce a product and categorizing these materials into (1) an “X list,” which includes the most known harmful substances that must be discontinued and replaced; (2) a “gray list,” which refers to substances that, although problematic, are not harmful enough to be included...