Cytokine gene polymorphisms and risk for upper respiratory symptoms in highly-trained athletes

A Cox, Maree Gleeson, David Pyne, Robin Callister, Peter Fricker, Rodney Scott

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    20 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Physiological and immunological factors contributing to risk for upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletic populations remain under investigation. Single nucleotide changes (polymorphisms) in cytokine genes and alterations in associated gene expression may influence risk for URS in some athletes. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of cytokine gene polymorphisms in athletes with or without a history of frequent URS. Cytokine gene polymorphisms were determined in samples from five previous investigations of immune function in highly-trained athletes (n=170). Participants were classified into two groups based on their self-reported number of episodes of URS in the preceding 12 months. Athletes were classified as healthy (n=82) if they reported < or =2 episodes of URS in the preceding 12 months. Athletes were classified as illness-prone (n=88) if reporting > or =3 episodes of URS. Polymorphisms in Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-2, IL-4 and Interferon(IFN)-gamma were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination assays. The distribution of genotype frequencies between the two groups was compared using a Chi-square test and logistic regression was used to model risk for URS as a function of cytokine gene polymorphisms. There was a tendency for IL-6 (chi2 = 5.0, p = 0.08) and IL-4 (chi2 = 4.8, p = 0.09) genotype frequencies to differ between the groups. The IL-6 high-expression genotype was associated with an increased likelihood of > or =3 URS episodes in a 12 month period (odds ratio (OR): 2.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-7.53; p = 0.03). The IL-2 high-expression genotype was associated with a tendency for a decreased likelihood of > or =3 URS episodes in a 12 month period (OR: 0.361, 95% CI: 0.124-1.06; p = 0.06). These data suggest cytokine gene polymorphisms may account in part for differences in risk for URS in highly-trained athletes.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)8-21
    Number of pages14
    JournalExercise Immunology Review
    Volume16
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Fingerprint

    Athletes
    Cytokines
    Genotype
    Interleukin-6
    Genes
    Interleukin-4
    Interleukin-2
    Odds Ratio
    Confidence Intervals
    Interleukin-1 Receptors
    Immunologic Factors
    Chi-Square Distribution
    Interleukin-8
    Gene Frequency
    Interleukin-10
    Interferon-gamma
    Sports
    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
    Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
    Logistic Models

    Cite this

    Cox, A ; Gleeson, Maree ; Pyne, David ; Callister, Robin ; Fricker, Peter ; Scott, Rodney. / Cytokine gene polymorphisms and risk for upper respiratory symptoms in highly-trained athletes. In: Exercise Immunology Review. 2010 ; Vol. 16. pp. 8-21.
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    abstract = "Physiological and immunological factors contributing to risk for upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletic populations remain under investigation. Single nucleotide changes (polymorphisms) in cytokine genes and alterations in associated gene expression may influence risk for URS in some athletes. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of cytokine gene polymorphisms in athletes with or without a history of frequent URS. Cytokine gene polymorphisms were determined in samples from five previous investigations of immune function in highly-trained athletes (n=170). Participants were classified into two groups based on their self-reported number of episodes of URS in the preceding 12 months. Athletes were classified as healthy (n=82) if they reported < or =2 episodes of URS in the preceding 12 months. Athletes were classified as illness-prone (n=88) if reporting > or =3 episodes of URS. Polymorphisms in Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-2, IL-4 and Interferon(IFN)-gamma were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination assays. The distribution of genotype frequencies between the two groups was compared using a Chi-square test and logistic regression was used to model risk for URS as a function of cytokine gene polymorphisms. There was a tendency for IL-6 (chi2 = 5.0, p = 0.08) and IL-4 (chi2 = 4.8, p = 0.09) genotype frequencies to differ between the groups. The IL-6 high-expression genotype was associated with an increased likelihood of > or =3 URS episodes in a 12 month period (odds ratio (OR): 2.87, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 1.10-7.53; p = 0.03). The IL-2 high-expression genotype was associated with a tendency for a decreased likelihood of > or =3 URS episodes in a 12 month period (OR: 0.361, 95{\%} CI: 0.124-1.06; p = 0.06). These data suggest cytokine gene polymorphisms may account in part for differences in risk for URS in highly-trained athletes.",
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    Cox, A, Gleeson, M, Pyne, D, Callister, R, Fricker, P & Scott, R 2010, 'Cytokine gene polymorphisms and risk for upper respiratory symptoms in highly-trained athletes', Exercise Immunology Review, vol. 16, pp. 8-21.

    Cytokine gene polymorphisms and risk for upper respiratory symptoms in highly-trained athletes. / Cox, A; Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David; Callister, Robin; Fricker, Peter; Scott, Rodney.

    In: Exercise Immunology Review, Vol. 16, 2010, p. 8-21.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T1 - Cytokine gene polymorphisms and risk for upper respiratory symptoms in highly-trained athletes

    AU - Cox, A

    AU - Gleeson, Maree

    AU - Pyne, David

    AU - Callister, Robin

    AU - Fricker, Peter

    AU - Scott, Rodney

    PY - 2010

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    N2 - Physiological and immunological factors contributing to risk for upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletic populations remain under investigation. Single nucleotide changes (polymorphisms) in cytokine genes and alterations in associated gene expression may influence risk for URS in some athletes. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of cytokine gene polymorphisms in athletes with or without a history of frequent URS. Cytokine gene polymorphisms were determined in samples from five previous investigations of immune function in highly-trained athletes (n=170). Participants were classified into two groups based on their self-reported number of episodes of URS in the preceding 12 months. Athletes were classified as healthy (n=82) if they reported < or =2 episodes of URS in the preceding 12 months. Athletes were classified as illness-prone (n=88) if reporting > or =3 episodes of URS. Polymorphisms in Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-2, IL-4 and Interferon(IFN)-gamma were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination assays. The distribution of genotype frequencies between the two groups was compared using a Chi-square test and logistic regression was used to model risk for URS as a function of cytokine gene polymorphisms. There was a tendency for IL-6 (chi2 = 5.0, p = 0.08) and IL-4 (chi2 = 4.8, p = 0.09) genotype frequencies to differ between the groups. The IL-6 high-expression genotype was associated with an increased likelihood of > or =3 URS episodes in a 12 month period (odds ratio (OR): 2.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-7.53; p = 0.03). The IL-2 high-expression genotype was associated with a tendency for a decreased likelihood of > or =3 URS episodes in a 12 month period (OR: 0.361, 95% CI: 0.124-1.06; p = 0.06). These data suggest cytokine gene polymorphisms may account in part for differences in risk for URS in highly-trained athletes.

    AB - Physiological and immunological factors contributing to risk for upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletic populations remain under investigation. Single nucleotide changes (polymorphisms) in cytokine genes and alterations in associated gene expression may influence risk for URS in some athletes. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of cytokine gene polymorphisms in athletes with or without a history of frequent URS. Cytokine gene polymorphisms were determined in samples from five previous investigations of immune function in highly-trained athletes (n=170). Participants were classified into two groups based on their self-reported number of episodes of URS in the preceding 12 months. Athletes were classified as healthy (n=82) if they reported < or =2 episodes of URS in the preceding 12 months. Athletes were classified as illness-prone (n=88) if reporting > or =3 episodes of URS. Polymorphisms in Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-2, IL-4 and Interferon(IFN)-gamma were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination assays. The distribution of genotype frequencies between the two groups was compared using a Chi-square test and logistic regression was used to model risk for URS as a function of cytokine gene polymorphisms. There was a tendency for IL-6 (chi2 = 5.0, p = 0.08) and IL-4 (chi2 = 4.8, p = 0.09) genotype frequencies to differ between the groups. The IL-6 high-expression genotype was associated with an increased likelihood of > or =3 URS episodes in a 12 month period (odds ratio (OR): 2.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-7.53; p = 0.03). The IL-2 high-expression genotype was associated with a tendency for a decreased likelihood of > or =3 URS episodes in a 12 month period (OR: 0.361, 95% CI: 0.124-1.06; p = 0.06). These data suggest cytokine gene polymorphisms may account in part for differences in risk for URS in highly-trained athletes.

    KW - URS

    KW - cytokines

    KW - genetics

    KW - polymorphism

    KW - athletes

    M3 - Article

    VL - 16

    SP - 8

    EP - 21

    JO - Exercise Immunology Review

    JF - Exercise Immunology Review

    SN - 1077-5552

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