Daylight saving time as a potential public health intervention: An observational study of evening daylight and objectively-measured physical activity among 23,000 children from 9 countries

Anna Goodman, Angie Page, Ashley Cooper, Katarzyna Kordas, Rachel DAVEY, Russell Pate, Jo Salmon, Lars Andersen, Karsten Froberg, Luis Sardinha, Sigmund Anderssen, Anna Timperio, Kathleen Janz, S Kreimler, Pedro Hallal, Esther Van Sluijs, G Sutton, Ulf Ekelund, Lauren Sherar

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    Abstract

    Background: It has been proposed that introducing daylight saving measures could increase childrens physical activity, but there exists little research on this issue. This study therefore examined associations between time of sunset and activity levels, including using the bi-annual changing of the clocks as a natural experiment. Methods: 23,188 children aged 5-16 years from 15 studies in nine countries were brought together in the International Childrens Accelerometry Database. 439 of these children were of particular interest for our analyses as they contributed data both immediately before and after the clocks changed. All children provided objectively-measured physical activity data from Actigraph accelerometers, and we used their average physical activity level (accelerometer counts per minute) as our primary outcome. Date of accelerometer data collection was matched to time of sunset, and to weather characteristics including daily precipitation, humidity, wind speed and temperature. Results: Adjusting for child and weather covariates, we found that longer evening daylight was independently associated with a small increase in daily physical activity. Consistent with a causal interpretation, the magnitude of these associations was largest in the late afternoon and early evening and these associations were also evident when comparing the same child just before and just after the clocks changed. These associations were, however, only consistently observed in the five mainland European, four English and two Australian samples (adjusted, pooled effect sizes 0.03-0.07 standard deviations per hour of additional evening daylight). In some settings there was some evidence of larger associations between daylength and physical activity in boys. There was no evidence of interactions with weight status or maternal education, and inconsistent findings for interactions with age. Conclusions: In Europe and Australia, evening daylight seems to play a causal role in increasing childrens activity in a relatively equitable manner. Although the average increase in activity is small in absolute terms, these increases apply across all children in a population. Moreover, these small effect sizes actually compare relatively favourably with the typical effect of intensive, individual-level interventions. We therefore conclude that, by shifting the physical activity mean of the entire population, the introduction of additional daylight saving measures could yield worthwhile public health benefits.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number84
    Pages (from-to)1-9
    Number of pages9
    JournalJBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports
    Volume11
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014

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    Goodman, Anna ; Page, Angie ; Cooper, Ashley ; Kordas, Katarzyna ; DAVEY, Rachel ; Pate, Russell ; Salmon, Jo ; Andersen, Lars ; Froberg, Karsten ; Sardinha, Luis ; Anderssen, Sigmund ; Timperio, Anna ; Janz, Kathleen ; Kreimler, S ; Hallal, Pedro ; Van Sluijs, Esther ; Sutton, G ; Ekelund, Ulf ; Sherar, Lauren. / Daylight saving time as a potential public health intervention: An observational study of evening daylight and objectively-measured physical activity among 23,000 children from 9 countries. In: JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports. 2014 ; Vol. 11, No. 1. pp. 1-9.
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    abstract = "Background: It has been proposed that introducing daylight saving measures could increase childrens physical activity, but there exists little research on this issue. This study therefore examined associations between time of sunset and activity levels, including using the bi-annual changing of the clocks as a natural experiment. Methods: 23,188 children aged 5-16 years from 15 studies in nine countries were brought together in the International Childrens Accelerometry Database. 439 of these children were of particular interest for our analyses as they contributed data both immediately before and after the clocks changed. All children provided objectively-measured physical activity data from Actigraph accelerometers, and we used their average physical activity level (accelerometer counts per minute) as our primary outcome. Date of accelerometer data collection was matched to time of sunset, and to weather characteristics including daily precipitation, humidity, wind speed and temperature. Results: Adjusting for child and weather covariates, we found that longer evening daylight was independently associated with a small increase in daily physical activity. Consistent with a causal interpretation, the magnitude of these associations was largest in the late afternoon and early evening and these associations were also evident when comparing the same child just before and just after the clocks changed. These associations were, however, only consistently observed in the five mainland European, four English and two Australian samples (adjusted, pooled effect sizes 0.03-0.07 standard deviations per hour of additional evening daylight). In some settings there was some evidence of larger associations between daylength and physical activity in boys. There was no evidence of interactions with weight status or maternal education, and inconsistent findings for interactions with age. Conclusions: In Europe and Australia, evening daylight seems to play a causal role in increasing childrens activity in a relatively equitable manner. Although the average increase in activity is small in absolute terms, these increases apply across all children in a population. Moreover, these small effect sizes actually compare relatively favourably with the typical effect of intensive, individual-level interventions. We therefore conclude that, by shifting the physical activity mean of the entire population, the introduction of additional daylight saving measures could yield worthwhile public health benefits.",
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    author = "Anna Goodman and Angie Page and Ashley Cooper and Katarzyna Kordas and Rachel DAVEY and Russell Pate and Jo Salmon and Lars Andersen and Karsten Froberg and Luis Sardinha and Sigmund Anderssen and Anna Timperio and Kathleen Janz and S Kreimler and Pedro Hallal and {Van Sluijs}, Esther and G Sutton and Ulf Ekelund and Lauren Sherar",
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    Goodman, A, Page, A, Cooper, A, Kordas, K, DAVEY, R, Pate, R, Salmon, J, Andersen, L, Froberg, K, Sardinha, L, Anderssen, S, Timperio, A, Janz, K, Kreimler, S, Hallal, P, Van Sluijs, E, Sutton, G, Ekelund, U & Sherar, L 2014, 'Daylight saving time as a potential public health intervention: An observational study of evening daylight and objectively-measured physical activity among 23,000 children from 9 countries', JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports, vol. 11, no. 1, 84, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-11-84

    Daylight saving time as a potential public health intervention: An observational study of evening daylight and objectively-measured physical activity among 23,000 children from 9 countries. / Goodman, Anna; Page, Angie; Cooper, Ashley; Kordas, Katarzyna; DAVEY, Rachel; Pate, Russell; Salmon, Jo; Andersen, Lars; Froberg, Karsten; Sardinha, Luis; Anderssen, Sigmund; Timperio, Anna; Janz, Kathleen; Kreimler, S; Hallal, Pedro; Van Sluijs, Esther; Sutton, G; Ekelund, Ulf; Sherar, Lauren.

    In: JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports, Vol. 11, No. 1, 84, 2014, p. 1-9.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Daylight saving time as a potential public health intervention: An observational study of evening daylight and objectively-measured physical activity among 23,000 children from 9 countries

    AU - Goodman, Anna

    AU - Page, Angie

    AU - Cooper, Ashley

    AU - Kordas, Katarzyna

    AU - DAVEY, Rachel

    AU - Pate, Russell

    AU - Salmon, Jo

    AU - Andersen, Lars

    AU - Froberg, Karsten

    AU - Sardinha, Luis

    AU - Anderssen, Sigmund

    AU - Timperio, Anna

    AU - Janz, Kathleen

    AU - Kreimler, S

    AU - Hallal, Pedro

    AU - Van Sluijs, Esther

    AU - Sutton, G

    AU - Ekelund, Ulf

    AU - Sherar, Lauren

    PY - 2014

    Y1 - 2014

    N2 - Background: It has been proposed that introducing daylight saving measures could increase childrens physical activity, but there exists little research on this issue. This study therefore examined associations between time of sunset and activity levels, including using the bi-annual changing of the clocks as a natural experiment. Methods: 23,188 children aged 5-16 years from 15 studies in nine countries were brought together in the International Childrens Accelerometry Database. 439 of these children were of particular interest for our analyses as they contributed data both immediately before and after the clocks changed. All children provided objectively-measured physical activity data from Actigraph accelerometers, and we used their average physical activity level (accelerometer counts per minute) as our primary outcome. Date of accelerometer data collection was matched to time of sunset, and to weather characteristics including daily precipitation, humidity, wind speed and temperature. Results: Adjusting for child and weather covariates, we found that longer evening daylight was independently associated with a small increase in daily physical activity. Consistent with a causal interpretation, the magnitude of these associations was largest in the late afternoon and early evening and these associations were also evident when comparing the same child just before and just after the clocks changed. These associations were, however, only consistently observed in the five mainland European, four English and two Australian samples (adjusted, pooled effect sizes 0.03-0.07 standard deviations per hour of additional evening daylight). In some settings there was some evidence of larger associations between daylength and physical activity in boys. There was no evidence of interactions with weight status or maternal education, and inconsistent findings for interactions with age. Conclusions: In Europe and Australia, evening daylight seems to play a causal role in increasing childrens activity in a relatively equitable manner. Although the average increase in activity is small in absolute terms, these increases apply across all children in a population. Moreover, these small effect sizes actually compare relatively favourably with the typical effect of intensive, individual-level interventions. We therefore conclude that, by shifting the physical activity mean of the entire population, the introduction of additional daylight saving measures could yield worthwhile public health benefits.

    AB - Background: It has been proposed that introducing daylight saving measures could increase childrens physical activity, but there exists little research on this issue. This study therefore examined associations between time of sunset and activity levels, including using the bi-annual changing of the clocks as a natural experiment. Methods: 23,188 children aged 5-16 years from 15 studies in nine countries were brought together in the International Childrens Accelerometry Database. 439 of these children were of particular interest for our analyses as they contributed data both immediately before and after the clocks changed. All children provided objectively-measured physical activity data from Actigraph accelerometers, and we used their average physical activity level (accelerometer counts per minute) as our primary outcome. Date of accelerometer data collection was matched to time of sunset, and to weather characteristics including daily precipitation, humidity, wind speed and temperature. Results: Adjusting for child and weather covariates, we found that longer evening daylight was independently associated with a small increase in daily physical activity. Consistent with a causal interpretation, the magnitude of these associations was largest in the late afternoon and early evening and these associations were also evident when comparing the same child just before and just after the clocks changed. These associations were, however, only consistently observed in the five mainland European, four English and two Australian samples (adjusted, pooled effect sizes 0.03-0.07 standard deviations per hour of additional evening daylight). In some settings there was some evidence of larger associations between daylength and physical activity in boys. There was no evidence of interactions with weight status or maternal education, and inconsistent findings for interactions with age. Conclusions: In Europe and Australia, evening daylight seems to play a causal role in increasing childrens activity in a relatively equitable manner. Although the average increase in activity is small in absolute terms, these increases apply across all children in a population. Moreover, these small effect sizes actually compare relatively favourably with the typical effect of intensive, individual-level interventions. We therefore conclude that, by shifting the physical activity mean of the entire population, the introduction of additional daylight saving measures could yield worthwhile public health benefits.

    KW - Adolescent

    KW - Child

    KW - Day length

    KW - Physical activity

    KW - Seasons

    KW - Public Health

    KW - Body Weight

    KW - Cross-Sectional Studies

    KW - Play and Playthings

    KW - Humans

    KW - Child, Preschool

    KW - Male

    KW - Photoperiod

    KW - Motor Activity

    KW - Socioeconomic Factors

    KW - Activities of Daily Living

    KW - Female

    KW - Accelerometry

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