Introduction Indigenist evaluation is emergent in Australia; the premise of which is that evaluations are undertaken for Indigenous, by Indigenous and with Indigenous people. This provides opportunities to develop new models and approaches. Exploring a collective capability approach could be one way to inform an Indigenist evaluation methodology. Collective capability suggests that a base of skills and knowledges exist, and when these assets come together, empowerment and agency emerge. However, collective capability requires defining as it is not common terminology in population health or evaluation. Our aim is to define the concept of collective capability in Indigenist evaluation in Australia from an Australian Indigenous standpoint. Methods and analysis A modified Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis will be used to define collective capability in an Australian Indigenous evaluation context, and to systematically review and synthesise the literature. Approximately 20 qualitative interviews with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledge holders will clarify the meaning of collective capability and inform appropriate search strategy terms with a consensus process then used to code the literature. We will then systematically collate, synthesise and analyse the literature to identify exemplars or models of collective capability from the literature. Ethics and dissemination The protocol has approval from the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Ethics Committee, approval no. EO239-20210114. All knowledge holders will provide written consent to participate in the research. This protocol provides a process to developing a concept, and will form the basis of a new framework and assessment tool for Indigenist evaluation practice. The concept analysis will establish definitions, characteristics and attributes of collective capability. Findings will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal, conference presentations, the project advisory group, the Thiitu Tharrmay reference group and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community partners supporting the project.