Baits containing sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) are commonly used in New Zealand during feral pest control operations. However, each year, a number of domestic dogs are unintentionally killed during these control operations, and a suitable antidote to 1080 intoxication is required. The primary toxic mechanism of 1080 is well known. However, as with other pathologies where energy deprivation is the main effect of intoxication, the cascade of effects that arises from this primary mechanism is complex. At present, putative antidotes for 1080 are generally unable to address the primary mechanism of intoxication but such agents may be able to control the cascade of secondary effects, which can result during intoxication. Part of the reason for this is that targeting the cascade can provide a longer window of time for antidote success. We have undertaken studies that identified some of the central nervous system (CNS) and systemic pathophysiological cascades caused by 1080 intoxication. Using this information we designed antidotes, on the basis of preventing different steps in this cascade. In the chicken model targeting systemic changes, in particular reducing effects of nitric oxide derivatives generated in cardiac muscle, proved successful in reducing fatality associated with 1080. In rats and sheep, targeting the CNS with a number of compounds including: glutamate; calcium and dopamine antagonists; gamma amino butyric acid agonists, and astressin-like compounds reduced fatalaties. However, to be successful in the rat and sheep model a given antidote needed to move quickly from systemic circulation across the blood brain barrier and into the CNS. The work also suggests ways in which specific biomarkers of 1080 exposure may be developed with respect to different species.