Did sex chromosome turnover promote divergence of the major mammal groups?: De novo sex chromosomes and drastic rearrangements may have posed reproductive barriers between monotremes, marsupials and placental mammals

Jennifer Graves

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    19 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Comparative mapping and sequencing show that turnover of sex determining genes and chromosomes, and sex chromosome rearrangements, accompany speciation in many vertebrates. Here I review the evidence and propose that the evolution of therian mammals was precipitated by evolution of the male-determining SRY gene, defining a novel XY sex chromosome pair, and interposing a reproductive barrier with the ancestral population of synapsid reptiles 190 million years ago (MYA). Divergence was reinforced by multiple translocations in monotreme sex chromosomes, the first of which supplied a novel sex determining gene. A sex chromosome-autosome fusion may have separated eutherians (placental mammals) from marsupials 160 MYA. Another burst of sex chromosome change and speciation is occurring in rodents, precipitated by the degradation of the Y. And although primates have a more stable Y chromosome, it may be just a matter of time before the same fate overtakes our own lineage. Also watch the video abstract.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)734-743
    Number of pages10
    JournalBioEssays
    Volume38
    Issue number8
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016

    Fingerprint

    Marsupialia
    Sex Chromosomes
    Mammals
    Genes
    Chromosomes
    Reptiles
    Y Chromosome
    Primates
    Vertebrates
    Rodentia
    Fusion reactions
    Degradation
    Population

    Cite this

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    title = "Did sex chromosome turnover promote divergence of the major mammal groups?: De novo sex chromosomes and drastic rearrangements may have posed reproductive barriers between monotremes, marsupials and placental mammals",
    abstract = "Comparative mapping and sequencing show that turnover of sex determining genes and chromosomes, and sex chromosome rearrangements, accompany speciation in many vertebrates. Here I review the evidence and propose that the evolution of therian mammals was precipitated by evolution of the male-determining SRY gene, defining a novel XY sex chromosome pair, and interposing a reproductive barrier with the ancestral population of synapsid reptiles 190 million years ago (MYA). Divergence was reinforced by multiple translocations in monotreme sex chromosomes, the first of which supplied a novel sex determining gene. A sex chromosome-autosome fusion may have separated eutherians (placental mammals) from marsupials 160 MYA. Another burst of sex chromosome change and speciation is occurring in rodents, precipitated by the degradation of the Y. And although primates have a more stable Y chromosome, it may be just a matter of time before the same fate overtakes our own lineage. Also watch the video abstract.",
    keywords = "animal genomics, de novo sex-determining genes, hybrid incompatibility, mammal evolution, sex chromosome differentiation and degradation, sex chromosome rearrangement, Genes, sry, Mammals/genetics, Male, Reproductive Isolation, Animals, Female, Chromosomes, Mammalian/genetics, Sex Chromosomes/genetics, Evolution, Molecular",
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    AU - Graves, Jennifer

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    N2 - Comparative mapping and sequencing show that turnover of sex determining genes and chromosomes, and sex chromosome rearrangements, accompany speciation in many vertebrates. Here I review the evidence and propose that the evolution of therian mammals was precipitated by evolution of the male-determining SRY gene, defining a novel XY sex chromosome pair, and interposing a reproductive barrier with the ancestral population of synapsid reptiles 190 million years ago (MYA). Divergence was reinforced by multiple translocations in monotreme sex chromosomes, the first of which supplied a novel sex determining gene. A sex chromosome-autosome fusion may have separated eutherians (placental mammals) from marsupials 160 MYA. Another burst of sex chromosome change and speciation is occurring in rodents, precipitated by the degradation of the Y. And although primates have a more stable Y chromosome, it may be just a matter of time before the same fate overtakes our own lineage. Also watch the video abstract.

    AB - Comparative mapping and sequencing show that turnover of sex determining genes and chromosomes, and sex chromosome rearrangements, accompany speciation in many vertebrates. Here I review the evidence and propose that the evolution of therian mammals was precipitated by evolution of the male-determining SRY gene, defining a novel XY sex chromosome pair, and interposing a reproductive barrier with the ancestral population of synapsid reptiles 190 million years ago (MYA). Divergence was reinforced by multiple translocations in monotreme sex chromosomes, the first of which supplied a novel sex determining gene. A sex chromosome-autosome fusion may have separated eutherians (placental mammals) from marsupials 160 MYA. Another burst of sex chromosome change and speciation is occurring in rodents, precipitated by the degradation of the Y. And although primates have a more stable Y chromosome, it may be just a matter of time before the same fate overtakes our own lineage. Also watch the video abstract.

    KW - animal genomics

    KW - de novo sex-determining genes

    KW - hybrid incompatibility

    KW - mammal evolution

    KW - sex chromosome differentiation and degradation

    KW - sex chromosome rearrangement

    KW - Genes, sry

    KW - Mammals/genetics

    KW - Male

    KW - Reproductive Isolation

    KW - Animals

    KW - Female

    KW - Chromosomes, Mammalian/genetics

    KW - Sex Chromosomes/genetics

    KW - Evolution, Molecular

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84978888843&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/sex-chromosome-turnover-promote-divergence-major-mammal-groups-novo-sex-chromosomes-drastic-rearrang

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    DO - 10.1002/bies.201600019

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