Different serological profiles to co-occurring pathogenic and nonpathogenic caliciviruses in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) across Australia

Tarnya E. Cox, June Liu, Remy Van De Ven, Tanja Strive

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    4 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was released in Australia as a biocontrol agent for wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in 1995–96; however, its effects were variable across Australia with the greatest population reductions seen in lower annual rainfall areas (<400 mm). There is speculation that the reduced effectiveness observed at higher annual rainfall sites is at least partially due to the presence of a nonpathogenic calicivirus (RCV-A1). The RCV-A1 is related to RHDV and confers partial and transient protection against lethal RHDV infection in laboratory tests. What is not well understood is where, how, and to what degree RCV-A1 impedes the effect of RHDV-mediated rabbit control under field conditions. We investigated seven wild rabbit populations across six states and territories representing different seasonal rainfall zones across Australia, four times during 2011–12, to investigate if the presence and prevalence of RCV-A1 coincided with a change in RHDV immunity status within these populations. Besides serology, tissue samples from both trapped and shot rabbits were collected for virus detection by reverse transcription PCR. Overall, 52% (n=258) of the total samples (n=496) tested positive for RHDV antibodies and 42% (n=208) positive for RCV-A1 antibodies; 30% (n=150) of the sera contained antibodies to both viruses. The proportion of rabbits with RHDV antibodies increased significantly at sites where RCV-A1 antibodies were present (χ2 1, α=0.1, P<0.001). Evidence that preinfection of RCV-A1 may lead to a higher proportion of sampled rabbits with antibodies to both viruses was found at only one site.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)472-481
    Number of pages10
    JournalJournal of Wildlife Diseases
    Volume53
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2017

    Fingerprint

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus
    Caliciviridae
    Oryctolagus cuniculus
    virus
    rabbits
    antibody
    antibodies
    rain
    viruses
    Vesivirus
    rainfall
    blood serum
    lethal genes
    biological control agents
    biocontrol agent
    immunity
    reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
    wild population
    sampling
    serum

    Cite this

    @article{20ca500b5c2d427aa9389f9bb7cd047d,
    title = "Different serological profiles to co-occurring pathogenic and nonpathogenic caliciviruses in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) across Australia",
    abstract = "Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was released in Australia as a biocontrol agent for wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in 1995–96; however, its effects were variable across Australia with the greatest population reductions seen in lower annual rainfall areas (<400 mm). There is speculation that the reduced effectiveness observed at higher annual rainfall sites is at least partially due to the presence of a nonpathogenic calicivirus (RCV-A1). The RCV-A1 is related to RHDV and confers partial and transient protection against lethal RHDV infection in laboratory tests. What is not well understood is where, how, and to what degree RCV-A1 impedes the effect of RHDV-mediated rabbit control under field conditions. We investigated seven wild rabbit populations across six states and territories representing different seasonal rainfall zones across Australia, four times during 2011–12, to investigate if the presence and prevalence of RCV-A1 coincided with a change in RHDV immunity status within these populations. Besides serology, tissue samples from both trapped and shot rabbits were collected for virus detection by reverse transcription PCR. Overall, 52{\%} (n=258) of the total samples (n=496) tested positive for RHDV antibodies and 42{\%} (n=208) positive for RCV-A1 antibodies; 30{\%} (n=150) of the sera contained antibodies to both viruses. The proportion of rabbits with RHDV antibodies increased significantly at sites where RCV-A1 antibodies were present (χ2 1, α=0.1, P<0.001). Evidence that preinfection of RCV-A1 may lead to a higher proportion of sampled rabbits with antibodies to both viruses was found at only one site.",
    keywords = "Biocontrol, Disease, Epidemiology, Introduced, Resistance, RHDV, Wildlife, epidemiology, introduced, disease, resistance, wildlife",
    author = "Cox, {Tarnya E.} and June Liu and {Van De Ven}, Remy and Tanja Strive",
    year = "2017",
    doi = "10.7589/2016-06-148",
    language = "English",
    volume = "53",
    pages = "472--481",
    journal = "Journal of Wildlife Diseases",
    issn = "0090-3558",
    publisher = "Wildlife Disease Association, Inc.",
    number = "3",

    }

    Different serological profiles to co-occurring pathogenic and nonpathogenic caliciviruses in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) across Australia. / Cox, Tarnya E.; Liu, June; Van De Ven, Remy; Strive, Tanja.

    In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2017, p. 472-481.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Different serological profiles to co-occurring pathogenic and nonpathogenic caliciviruses in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) across Australia

    AU - Cox, Tarnya E.

    AU - Liu, June

    AU - Van De Ven, Remy

    AU - Strive, Tanja

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    AB - Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was released in Australia as a biocontrol agent for wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in 1995–96; however, its effects were variable across Australia with the greatest population reductions seen in lower annual rainfall areas (<400 mm). There is speculation that the reduced effectiveness observed at higher annual rainfall sites is at least partially due to the presence of a nonpathogenic calicivirus (RCV-A1). The RCV-A1 is related to RHDV and confers partial and transient protection against lethal RHDV infection in laboratory tests. What is not well understood is where, how, and to what degree RCV-A1 impedes the effect of RHDV-mediated rabbit control under field conditions. We investigated seven wild rabbit populations across six states and territories representing different seasonal rainfall zones across Australia, four times during 2011–12, to investigate if the presence and prevalence of RCV-A1 coincided with a change in RHDV immunity status within these populations. Besides serology, tissue samples from both trapped and shot rabbits were collected for virus detection by reverse transcription PCR. Overall, 52% (n=258) of the total samples (n=496) tested positive for RHDV antibodies and 42% (n=208) positive for RCV-A1 antibodies; 30% (n=150) of the sera contained antibodies to both viruses. The proportion of rabbits with RHDV antibodies increased significantly at sites where RCV-A1 antibodies were present (χ2 1, α=0.1, P<0.001). Evidence that preinfection of RCV-A1 may lead to a higher proportion of sampled rabbits with antibodies to both viruses was found at only one site.

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    KW - Wildlife

    KW - epidemiology

    KW - introduced

    KW - disease

    KW - resistance

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