With the emergence of digital engineering in the construction context, significant opportunities have arisen for safer project execution. Several studies in recent years have described various applications of digital engineering to improve safety performance. However, what is missing is a systematic review that shows the direct links between the potential of these approaches and how they address the causes of construction accidents. This study is an attempt to fill this gap by conducting a realist systematic review of the literature published since 2012. The study draws from the Loughborough Construction Accident Causation (ConAC) model to create a comprehensive list of accident causes and relates these causes to the identified digital engineering potential, as reflected in the literature. This approach identifies the research gaps and neglected research domains, particularly six endemic problems, within the current digital engineering literature pertaining to safety, while introducing future areas associated with the identified gaps. This study provides useful insights to investigators who gain direction towards the top priorities for future research. In practical terms, the study collates and presents various areas of potential within digital engineering to address the causes of accidents on construction sites, providing a concise source of knowledge for practitioners.